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Influence of psychological factors on the prognosis of chronic shoulder pain: protocol for a prospective cohort study
  1. Javier Martinez-Calderon1,
  2. Filip Struyf2,
  3. Mira Meeus2,3,4,
  4. Jose Miguel Morales-Ascencio5,
  5. Alejandro Luque-Suarez1
  1. 1Department of Physiotherapy, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
  2. 2Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy Department, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium
  3. 3Rehabilitation Sciences and Physiotherapy Department, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  4. 4Pain in Motion International Research Group, Ghent, Belgium
  5. 5Department of Nursing, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alejandro Luque-Suarez; aluques{at}


Introduction Shoulder pain is a highly prevalent condition. Psychological factors could play an essential role in the prognosis of chronic shoulder pain (CSP). The aims of the study will be to analyse the level of association between psychological factors and pain-disability at baseline and prospectively to assess their prognostic role; to evaluate the association of pain catastrophising and kinesiophobia at baseline and prospectively in the relationship between pain intensity and disability, or between self-efficacy and disability in patients with CSP; to explore the association of self-efficacy at baseline and prospectively in the relationship between pain intensity and disability, in comparison with kinesiophobia and pain catastrophising.

Methods and analysis The study is a longitudinal, prospective cohort study with a 12-month follow-up. It will be conducted in 4 primary-care centres and one hospital of the province of Malaga, Spain. 307 participants aged between 18 and 70 years suffering from CSP (3 months or more) will be included. Primary outcomes will include pain, disability and self-efficacy, whereas kinesiophobia, pain-related fear, pain catastrophising, anxiety, depression, patient expectations of recovery, age, gender, duration/intensity of symptoms, educational level and other factors will be predictive measures. Follow-up: baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months.

Ethics and dissemination The local ethics committee (The Costa del Sol Ethics Committee, Malaga, 28042016) has approved this protocol. Dissemination will occur through presentations at National and International conferences and publications in international peer-reviewed journals.

Trial registration number NCT02738372; pre-results

  • shoulder pain
  • chronic pain
  • psychological factors
  • prognosis

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  • Contributors AL-S conceived the study. AL-S and JM-C initiated the study design and FS and MM helped with the final version of this protocol. AL-S and FS provided statistical expertise in longitudinal trial design and JMM-A will be conducting the primary statistical analysis. All authors contributed to the refinement of the study protocol and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This study is supported by University of Malaga, Spain.

  • Disclaimer The funding source has no role in study design, in data collection, analysis and interpretation, in the writing of the report or in the decision to submit the paper for publication.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.