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Regional differences in usage of antenatal care and safe delivery services in Indonesia: findings from a nationally representative survey
  1. Vrijesh Tripathi1,
  2. Rajvir Singh2
  1. 1Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of the West Indies, St Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago
  2. 2Cardiology Research Centre, Heart Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC), Doha, Qatar
  1. Correspondence to Dr Vrijesh Tripathi; vrijesh.tripathi{at}


Background Indonesia has shown a nominal increase in antenatal care (ANC) coverage from 93% to 96% in the Indonesia Demographic Health Survey (IDHS)—2012. This is high but for a comprehensive assessment of maternal health coverage in Indonesia, safe delivery services need to be assessed in conjunction with ANC coverage.

Materials and methods The study uses survey data from the IDHS-2012 that was conducted among women aged 15–49 years who gave birth during the past 3 years preceding the survey. Socioeconomic and demographic factors affecting ANC coverage and safe delivery services are analysed by segregating the data into 7 regions of Indonesia.

Results Multivariate results show that besides wealth and education differentials, regional differences significantly affect the usage of ANC and safe delivery services across the 7 regions. Univariate analyses show that Sulawesi, Maluku and Western New Guinea islands are at a disadvantage in accessing ANC and safe delivery services.

Conclusions The study recommends that disaggregated regional targets be set in order to further reduce maternal mortality rates in Indonesia.

  • Health inequalities
  • Maternal Health
  • Health Services
  • Safe delivery
  • Antenatal Care

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

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  • Contributors VT and RS conceived and designed the study, analysed the data, and equally contributed and reviewed drafts of the paper.

  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement The DHS website provides access to data on submission and approval for a proposal of study:

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