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A comparison of pregnancy outcomes in Ghanaian women with varying dietary diversity: a prospective cohort study protocol
  1. Shaibu Mohammed Osman1,
  2. Mahama Saaka2,
  3. Fereydoun Siassi1,
  4. Mostafa Qorbani3,
  5. Parvaneh Yavari1,
  6. Ina Danquah4,
  7. Gity Sotoudeh1
  1. 1Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences—International Campus, Tehran, Iran
  2. 2Department of Community Nutrition, School of Allied Health Sciences, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana
  3. 3Department of Community Medicine, School of Public Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
  4. 4Department Molecular Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Professor Gity Sotoudeh; gsotoodeh{at}


Introduction Poor dietary intake during pregnancy can have negative repercussions on the mother and fetus. This study therefore aims to explore the dietary diversity (DD) of pregnant women and its associations with pregnancy outcomes among women in Northern Ghana. The main outcome variables to be measured are gestational weight gain and birth weight.

Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study design will be used and 600 pregnant women in their first trimester will be systematically recruited at health facilities and followed until delivery. In three follow-up visits after recruitment, information on sociodemographic and general characteristics, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form, dietary intake (24-hour food recall), anthropometry and pregnancy outcomes will be collected. DD will be measured three times using the minimum DD-women (MDD-W) indicator and the mean of the three values overall will be used to determine low (<5 food groups) and high (≥5 food groups) DD. Data will be analysed using SPSS. Comparisons between groups (categorical data) will be made using the χ2 test for proportions, and t-tests and ANOVA will be performed on continuous variables. Regression analysis will be used to identify independent outcome predictors while controlling for possible confounding factors. The results may help to identify differences in DD between healthy and unhealthy pregnancy outcomes.

Ethics and dissemination The study protocol has been approved by the ethics committee of Tehran University of Medical Sciences and the ethical review committee of the Tamale Teaching Hospital. Written informed consent will be obtained from all subjects. The results will be published in due course.

  • minimum dietary diversity-women
  • 24-hour food recall
  • pregnancy outcome
  • IPAQ-short form
  • Northern Ghana

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