Article Text

Download PDFPDF

Sex differences in the risk profile of hypertension: a cross-sectional study
  1. Saswata Ghosh1,2,
  2. Simantini Mukhopadhyay2,
  3. Anamitra Barik1,3
  1. 1Society for Health and Demographic Surveillance, Suri, West Bengal, India
  2. 2Institute of Development Studies Kolkata, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
  3. 3Niramay TB Sanatorium and Chest Clinic, District Hospital, Suri, Birbhum, West Bengal, India
  1. Correspondence to Dr Anamitra Barik; anomitro2010{at}


Objective To assess the socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors associated with hypertension among a sample male and female population in India.

Setting Cross-sectional survey data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of rural West Bengal, India was used.

Participants 27 589 adult individuals (13 994 males and 13 595 females), aged ≥18 years, were included in the study.

Primary and secondary outcome measures Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mm Hg, or if the subject was undergoing regular antihypertensive therapy. Prehypertension was defined as SBP 120–139 mm Hg and DBP 80–89 mm Hg. Individuals were categorised as non-normotensives, which includes both the prehypertensives and hypertensives. Generalised ordered logit model (GOLM) was deployed to fulfil the study objective.

Results Over 39% of the men and 25% of the women were prehypertensives. Almost 12.5% of the men and 11.3% of the women were diagnosed as hypertensives. Women were less likely to be non-normotensive compared to males. Odds ratios estimated from GOLM indicate that women were less likely to be hypertensive or prehypertensive, and age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.05; and OR 1.08, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.09 for males and females, respectively) and body mass index (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.38 to 1.97 for males; and OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.60 for females) are associated with hypertension.

Conclusions An elevated level of hypertension exists among a select group of the rural Indian population. Focusing on men, an intervention could be designed for lifestyle modification to curb the prevalence of hypertension.

  • Nonnormotension
  • prehypertension
  • blood pressure
  • India

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

View Full Text

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.