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Antidepressants and the risk of hyponatremia: a Danish register-based population study
  1. Katja Biering Leth-Møller1,
  2. Annette Højmann Hansen2,
  3. Maia Torstensson1,
  4. Stig Ejdrup Andersen3,
  5. Lars Ødum4,
  6. Gunnar Gislasson5,
  7. Christian Torp-Pedersen6,
  8. Ellen Astrid Holm1
  1. 1Department of Geriatric Medicine, Nykøbing Falster Hospital, Nykøbing Falster, Denmark
  2. 2Department of Geriatric Medicine, Slagelse Hospital, Slagelse, Denmark
  3. 3Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University Hospital Zealand, Roskilde, Denmark
  4. 4Department of Biochemistry, University Hospital Zealand, Roskilde, Denmark
  5. 5Department of Cardiology, Gentofte Hospital, Hellerup, Denmark
  6. 6Institute of Health, Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
  1. Correspondence to Dr Katja Leth-Møller; katja.biering.leth-moeller.01{at}


Objective To examine the association between classes of antidepressants and hyponatremia, and between specific antidepressants and hyponatremia.

Design Retrospective register-based cohort study using nationwide registers from 1998 to 2012.

Setting The North Denmark Region.

Participants In total, 638 352 individuals were included.

Primary and secondary outcome measures Plasma sodium was obtained from the LABKA database. The primary outcome was hyponatremia defined as plasma sodium (p-sodium) below 135 mmol/L and secondary outcome was severe hyponatremia defined as p-sodium below 130 mmol/L. The association between use of specific antidepressants and hyponatremia was analysed using multivariable Poisson regression models.

Results An event of hyponatremia occurred in 72 509 individuals and 11.36% (n=6476) of these events happened during treatment with antidepressants. Incidence rate ratios and CIs for the association with hyponatremia in the first p-sodium measured after initiation of treatment were for citalopram 7.8 (CI 7.42 to 8.20); clomipramine 4.93 (CI 2.72 to 8.94); duloxetine 2.05 (CI 1.44 to 292); venlafaxine 2.90 (CI 2.43 to 3.46); mirtazapine 2.95 (CI 2.71 to 3.21); and mianserin 0.90 (CI 0.71 to 1.14).

Conclusions All antidepressants except mianserin are associated with hyponatremia. The association is strongest with citalopram and lowest with duloxetine, venlafaxine and mirtazapine.

  • Hyponatremia

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