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Safety and immunogenicity of a new 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine versus a licensed 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a study protocol of a randomised non-inferiority trial in China
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  • Published on:
    Need of Live Attenuated Vaccine for Innate Immune Response Against Streptococcus pneumoniae; Targeting Netosis based Immune Response
    • Atif Amin Baig, Medical Researcher Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin
    • Other Contributors:
      • Aina Shafiqah N Z, Postgraduate
      • Hanani M Ahmad Yusof, Lecturer
      • Yeo Chew Chieng, Researcher
      • Zahri M Khari, Scientist
      • Malik Amanov, Postgraduate
      • Adzim MK Rohin, Researcher
      • Alya Al Khateeb, Medical Lecturer
      • Hassanian Al Talib, Researcher
      • Majid Latif, Medical researcher
      • Zubaidi A Latif, Surgeon
      • Nordin Simbak, Surgeon

    he role of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs) in effectively trapping and destroying bacteria during a bacterial infections is a recent discovery. But certain bacterias, eg. Streptococcus Pneumoniae can escape traps by degrading chromatin fibers of NETs by surface exposed receptors and thus results in promoting bacterial spreading through the airway and into the bloodstream. Furthermore, Wartha and colleagues showed that S. pneumoniae evades NETs by a positive charge on its surface as a result of capsule expression and lipoteichoic acid d-alanylation. However, the mechanisms related to S. pneumoniae-induced NET formation remain unclear beside its degradation. The exact molecular mechanism of escaping NETs by S. pneumoniae is needed to be studied as per basic structural component degradation of NETs towards the pathogenesis and immunogenic response of S. pneumoniae against host defense mechanisms. Studying the exact molecular effect on the quantification and structure of NETs in infected neutrophils is expected to define specific pathogenic induction and destruction of NETs under the effect of specific genes in comparison with their mutants as live controls. The resultant mutants are also expected to give high immune response beside helping in understanding the basic mechanism of NETs in respect to specific genes. This could help in targeting the innate immune response at a more broader level beside multivalency of the vaccine will never be an issue.

    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.