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Does subjective sleep quality improve by a walking intervention? A real-world study in a Japanese workplace
  1. Hikaru Hori,
  2. Atsuko Ikenouchi-Sugita,
  3. Reiji Yoshimura,
  4. Jun Nakamura
  1. Department of Psychiatry, University of Occupational and Environmental Health Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hikaru Hori; hori-h{at}


Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a 4-week walking intervention on subjective sleep quality.

Design A prospective open-label study.

Participants A total of 490 healthy workers were included in the study. The 490 participants were divided into a group of 214 participants with exercise habits (exercising group, EG) and a group of 276 participants without exercise habits (non-EG).

Interventions A walking intervention with a target of walking 10 000 steps daily for 4 weeks.

Outcome measures The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was administered twice (before the start and after the end of the study).

Results Overall, the walking intervention improved the participants’ PSQI global score, sleep latency (minutes), sleep duration (hours), perceived sleep quality factor and daily disturbance factor. Among the EG participants, the walking intervention significantly improved the PSQI global score and perceived sleep quality. Among the non-EG participants, the walking intervention significantly improved the PSQI global score, sleep latency, sleep duration and perceived sleep quality.

Conclusions A walking intervention might reduce the sleep latency and increase total sleep duration in working persons without exercise habits.

  • Walking
  • Sleep
  • PSQI
  • exercise habits

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See:

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  • Contributors HH designed the study, collected the clinical data, wrote the first draft of the manuscript and managed the literature searches. RY and JN developed the study protocol and wrote the final manuscript. AI-S performed the statistical analysis and helped to recruit participants. HH, AI-S, RY and JN took part in either drafting of the article or revising it for important intellectual content, and all approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Occupational and Environmental Health.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.