Article Text

Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis including 266 country-specific nutrition surveys worldwide
  1. Renata Micha1,
  2. Shahab Khatibzadeh2,
  3. Peilin Shi1,
  4. Kathryn G Andrews3,
  5. Rebecca E Engell3,
  6. Dariush Mozaffarian1
  7. on behalf of the Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoDE)
    1. 1Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    2. 2Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
    3. 3Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, Washington, USA
    1. Correspondence to Dr Renata Micha; renata.micha{at}


    Objective To quantify global intakes of key foods related to non-communicable diseases in adults by region (n=21), country (n=187), age and sex, in 1990 and 2010.

    Design We searched and obtained individual-level intake data in 16 age/sex groups worldwide from 266 surveys across 113 countries. We combined these data with food balance sheets available in all nations and years. A hierarchical Bayesian model estimated mean food intake and associated uncertainty for each age-sex-country-year stratum, accounting for differences in intakes versus availability, survey methods and representativeness, and sampling and modelling uncertainty.

    Setting/population Global adult population, by age, sex, country and time.

    Results In 2010, global fruit intake was 81.3 g/day (95% uncertainty interval 78.9–83.7), with country-specific intakes ranging from 19.2–325.1 g/day; in only 2 countries (representing 0.4% of the world's population), mean intakes met recommended targets of ≥300 g/day. Country-specific vegetable intake ranged from 34.6–493.1 g/day (global mean=208.8 g/day); corresponding values for nuts/seeds were 0.2–152.7 g/day (8.9 g/day); for whole grains, 1.3–334.3 g/day (38.4 g/day); for seafood, 6.0–87.6 g/day (27.9 g/day); for red meats, 3.0–124.2 g/day (41.8 g/day); and for processed meats, 2.5–66.1 g/day (13.7 g/day). Mean national intakes met recommended targets in countries representing 0.4% of the global population for vegetables (≥400 g/day); 9.6% for nuts/seeds (≥4 (28.35 g) servings/week); 7.6% for whole grains (≥2.5 (50 g) servings/day); 4.4% for seafood (≥3.5 (100 g) servings/week); 20.3% for red meats (≤1 (100 g) serving/week); and 38.5% for processed meats (≤1 (50 g) serving/week). Intakes of healthful foods were generally higher and of less healthful foods generally lower at older ages. Intakes were generally similar by sex. Vegetable, seafood and processed meat intakes were stable over time; fruits, nuts/seeds and red meat, increased; and whole grains, decreased.

    Conclusions These global dietary data by nation, age and sex identify key challenges and opportunities for optimising diets, informing policies and priorities for improving global health.


    This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See:

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