Article Text

Download PDFPDF

The relationship between smoking status and health-related quality of life among smokers who participated in a 1-year smoking cessation programme in Taiwan: a cohort study using the EQ-5D
  1. Pei-Ching Chen1,2,
  2. Raymond Nien-Chen Kuo3,
  3. Chih-Kuan Lai4,
  4. Shih-Tzu Tsai5,6,
  5. Yue-Chune Lee1
  1. 1Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
  2. 2Department of Health and Welfare, School of Metropolitan Governance, University of Taipei, Taipei, Taiwan
  3. 3Institute of Health Policy and Management, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C
  4. 4Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
  5. 5Center for Preventive Services, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien, Taiwan
  6. 6College of Medicine, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Yue-Chune Lee; yclee{at}


Objective To assess the relationship between smoking status and health-related quality of life 1 year after participation in a smoking cessation programme in Taiwan.

Design A cohort study of smokers who voluntarily participated in a smoking cessation programme with two follow-up assessments of smoking status via telephone interview, conducted 6 months and 1 year after finishing the smoking cessation programme.

Setting Hospitals and clinics providing smoking cessation services.

Participants A total of 3514 participants completed both telephone interviews, which represents a response rate of 64%. After the interviews, participants were divided into four groups according to their smoking status: (1) long-term quitters: participants who had quit tobacco use for 1 year; (2) short-term quitters: participants who had been smoking for at least 6 months and then quit tobacco for 6 months after participating in the programme; (3) relapsed smokers: participants who relapsed into tobacco use after ceasing tobacco use for 6 months; and (4) continuing smokers: participants who failed to quit smoking for at least 1 year, despite participating in the programme.

Interventions The Outpatient Smoking Cessation Service of Taiwan provides counselling and pharmacotherapy to individuals seeking to quit smoking.

Primary outcomes The health-related quality of life of the participants was measured using an approved Chinese version of the EuroQol-5D-3L (EQ-5D-3L) descriptive system.

Results After controlling for sex, age, education, marital status, job status, monthly income and disease status at baseline, our results revealed that long-term (OR=0.61 (0.48 to 0.77)) and short-term (OR=0.65 (0.54 to 0.79)) quitters experienced less anxiety and depression than did continuing smokers.

Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support claims that all quitters, regardless of whether they stop smoking for 6 months or 1 year, have better quality of life with regard to anxiety or depression.

  • EQ-5D
  • Smoking Cessation
  • health-related quality of life

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.