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Direct targeting of risk factors significantly increases the detection of liver cirrhosis in primary care: a cross-sectional diagnostic study utilising transient elastography
  1. David J Harman1,
  2. Stephen D Ryder1,
  3. Martin W James1,
  4. Matthew Jelpke2,
  5. Dominic S Ottey2,
  6. Emilie A Wilkes1,
  7. Timothy R Card1,3,
  8. Guruprasad P Aithal1,
  9. Indra Neil Guha1
  1. 1National Institute for Health Research Nottingham Digestive Diseases Biomedical Research Unit (NDDBRU), Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust and University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  2. 2NHS Rushcliffe Clinical Commissioning Group, Nottingham, UK
  3. 3Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Indra Neil Guha; neil.guha{at}nottingham.ac.uk

Abstract

Objectives To assess the feasibility of a novel diagnostic algorithm targeting patients with risk factors for chronic liver disease in a community setting.

Design Prospective cross-sectional study.

Setting Two primary care practices (adult patient population 10 479) in Nottingham, UK.

Participants Adult patients (aged 18 years or over) fulfilling one or more selected risk factors for developing chronic liver disease: (1) hazardous alcohol use, (2) type 2 diabetes or (3) persistently elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) liver function enzyme with negative serology.

Interventions A serial biomarker algorithm, using a simple blood-based marker (aspartate aminotransferase:ALT ratio for hazardous alcohol users, BARD score for other risk groups) and subsequently liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE).

Main outcome measures Diagnosis of clinically significant liver disease (defined as liver stiffness ≥8 kPa); definitive diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.

Results We identified 920 patients with the defined risk factors of whom 504 patients agreed to undergo investigation. A normal blood biomarker was found in 62 patients (12.3%) who required no further investigation. Subsequently, 378 patients agreed to undergo TE, of whom 98 (26.8% of valid scans) had elevated liver stiffness. Importantly, 71/98 (72.4%) patients with elevated liver stiffness had normal liver enzymes and would be missed by traditional investigation algorithms. We identified 11 new patients with definite cirrhosis, representing a 140% increase in the number of diagnosed cases in this population.

Conclusions A non-invasive liver investigation algorithm based in a community setting is feasible to implement. Targeting risk factors using a non-invasive biomarker approach identified a substantial number of patients with previously undetected cirrhosis.

Trial registration number The diagnostic algorithm utilised for this study can be found on clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02037867), and is part of a continuing longitudinal cohort study.

  • GENERAL MEDICINE (see Internal Medicine)

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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