Objectives To explore associations between features of sleep during pregnancy and adverse outcomes for the infant.
Setting E Moe, Māmā is a cohort study in Aotearoa/New Zealand that investigates self-reported sleep and maternal health in late pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Participants Women (N=633; 194 Māori) reported detailed information on their sleep duration, quality, disturbances, disorders (snoring, breathing pauses, twitching legs, restless legs) and daytime sleepiness between 35 and 37 weeks gestation.
Outcome measures Birthweight and fetal distress during labour were extracted from medical records. Associations between each sleep variable and small or large for gestational age (SGA/LGA) using customised birthweight centile or fetal distress were estimated using multinomial/logistic regression, controlling for potential confounders. Secondary analyses considered differences in associations between Māori and non-Māori women.
Results There was some indication that breathing pauses (a measure of sleep apnoea) were associated with both SGA (OR 2.8, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.0, p=0.08) and LGA (OR 2.0, 95% CI 0.7 to 5.7, p=0.20), with the association for LGA being stronger when only pregnancy-onset breathing pauses were considered (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 9.6, p=0.01). There was also some evidence that pregnancy-onset leg twitching (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 10.0, p=0.03) and frequent sleep disturbance due to feeling too hot or too cold (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9 to 3.6, p=0.13) were associated with higher risk of fetal distress. Other sleep measures, including snoring, were not associated with SGA, LGA or fetal distress. Many of the associations we observed were considerably stronger in Māori compared with non-Māori women.
Conclusions We did not find evidence of previously reported associations between snoring and SGA. Our findings tentatively suggest that self-reported breathing pauses and leg twitching in late pregnancy are associated with infant outcomes, and highlight ethnic inequalities.
- SLEEP MEDICINE
This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Statistics from Altmetric.com
This web only file has been produced by the BMJ Publishing Group from an electronic file supplied by the author(s) and has not been edited for content.
- Data supplement 1 - Online supplement
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.