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Why do some people with type 2 diabetes who are using insulin have poor glycaemic control? A qualitative study
  1. Wen Ting Tong1,
  2. Shireene Ratna Vethakkan2,
  3. Chirk Jenn Ng1
  1. 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Primary Care Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  2. 2Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  1. Correspondence to Wen Ting Tong; wentingtong{at}


Objective To explore factors influencing poor glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes using insulin.

Research design A qualitative method comprising in-depth individual interviews. A semistructured interview guide was used. The interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic approach.

Participants Seventeen people with type 2 diabetes using insulin with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥9% for >1 year.

Setting The Primary Care Clinic and Diabetes Clinic in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia.

Results Data analysis uncovered four themes: lifestyle challenges in adhering to medical recommendations; psychosocial and emotional hurdles; treatment-related factors; lack of knowledge about and self-efficacy in diabetes self-care.

Conclusions Factors that explain the poor glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes using insulin were identified. Healthcare providers could use these findings to address patients’ concerns during consultations and help to improve glycaemic control.


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