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Self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome in Japanese people: cross-sectional study
  1. Satsue Nagahama1,2,3,
  2. Kayo Kurotani1,
  3. Ngoc Minh Pham4,
  4. Akiko Nanri1,
  5. Keisuke Kuwahara1,
  6. Masashi Dan2,
  7. Yuji Nishiwaki3,
  8. Tetsuya Mizoue1
  1. 1Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Center for Clinical Sciences, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2All Japan Labor Welfare Foundation, Tokyo, Japan
  3. 3Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Medicine, Toho University, Tokyo, Japan
  4. 4Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Thai Nguyen University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam
  1. Correspondence to Dr Satsue Nagahama; satsue_0323{at}


Objectives To examine the association between self-reported eating rate and metabolic syndrome.

Design Cross-sectional study.

Setting Annual health checkup at a health check service centre in Japan.

Participants A total of 56 865 participants (41 820 male and 15 045 female) who attended a health checkup in 2011 and reported no history of coronary heart disease or stroke.

Main outcome measure Metabolic syndrome was defined by the joint of interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Results In multiple logistic regression models, eating rate was significantly and positively associated with metabolic syndrome. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) for slow, normal and fast were 0.70 (0.62 to 0.79), 1.00 (reference) and 1.61 (1.53 to 1.70), respectively, in men (p for trend <0.001), and 0.74 (0.60 to 0.91), 1.00 (reference) and 1.27 (1.13 to 1.43), respectively, in women (p for trend <0.001). Of metabolic syndrome components, abdominal obesity showed the strongest association with eating rate. The associations of eating rate and metabolic syndrome and its components were largely attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index; however, the association of slow eating with lower odds of high blood pressure (men and women) and hyperglycaemia (men) and that of fast eating with higher odds of lipid abnormality (men) remained statistically significant.

Conclusions Results suggest that eating rate is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome and that this association is largely accounted for by the difference in body mass according to eating rate.


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