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The impact of mass media interventions on tuberculosis awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation: a systematic review protocol
  1. Mweete D Nglazi1,2,
  2. Linda-Gail Bekker1,
  3. Robin Wood1,
  4. Muki S Shey3,
  5. Olalekan A Uthman4,5,6,
  6. Charles S Wiysonge6,7
  1. 1Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine and the Department of Medicine, The Desmond Tutu HIV Centre, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  2. 2International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Paris, France
  3. 3South African Endpoint Laboratory, Aeras Global TB Vaccine Foundation, Cape Town, South Africa
  4. 4Division of Health Sciences, Warwick-Centre for Applied Health Research and Delivery (WCAHRD), Warwick Medical School, The University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  5. 5International Health Group, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, Merseyside, UK
  6. 6Centre for Evidence-based Health Care, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  7. 7Division of Community Health, Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa
  1. Correspondence to Mweete D Nglazi; Mweete.Nglazi{at}


Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in many parts of the world. Strategies to curb the spread of TB must match the multifaceted nature of the epidemic. The use of mass media is one of the important strategies in communicating behavioural change in relation to TB prevention and the treatment. However, the benefits of this intervention are unclear. We, therefore, plan to conduct a systematic review on the effects of mass media interventions on TB awareness, health-seeking behaviour and health service utilisation.

Methods and analysis We will preferably include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this systematic review. However, non-randomised studies will be included if there is an inadequate number of RCTs. We will perform electronic searches in PubMed, Scopus and other databases, along with manual searches. Articles written (or translated) in English and French and published between 1 January 1980 and 31 October 2013 will be eligible for inclusion in this review. The primary outcomes will be TB knowledge, attitudes and awareness, healthcare-seeking behaviour and service utilisation. The secondary outcomes will include stigma and discrimination against people with TB and the costs of the interventions. We will investigate clinical and statistical heterogeneity and pool studies judged to be clinically and statistically homogeneous. Relative risks will be calculated for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences for continuous outcomes, both with their corresponding 95% CIs.

Ethics and dissemination The systematic review will use data that is not linked to individuals. The review findings may have implications for clinical practice and future research, and will be disseminated electronically and in print through peer-reviewed publications.

Protocol registration number PROSPERO CRD42013005867


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