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BCG vaccination in England since 2005: a survey of policy and practice
  1. Daniel Pilger1,
  2. Patrick Nguipdop-Djomo1,
  3. Ibrahim Abubakar2,3,
  4. David Elliman4,
  5. Laura C Rodrigues1,
  6. John M Watson3,
  7. Vera Eastman5,
  8. Punam Mangtani1
  1. 1Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK
  2. 2Institute of Epidemiology & Health, Faculty of Population Health Sciences, University College of London, London UK
  3. 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, Health Protection Services, London, England
  4. 4Whittington Health, London, UK
  5. 5Columbia University, New York, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Punam Mangtani; punam.mangtani{at}


Objective Assess the current BCG vaccination policies and delivery pathways for immunisation in Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) in England since the 2005 change in recommendations.

Design A survey of key informants across PCTs using a standardised, structured questionnaire.

Setting 152 PCTs in England.

Results Complete questionnaires were returned from 127 (84%) PCTs. Sixteen (27%) PCTs reported universal infant vaccination and 111 (73%) had selective infant vaccination. Selective vaccination outside infancy was also reported from 94 (74%) PCTs. PCTs with selective infant policy most frequently vaccinated on postnatal wards (51/102, 50%), whereas PCTs with universal infant vaccination most frequently vaccinated in community clinics (9/13, 69%; p=0.011). To identify and flag up eligible infants in PCTs with targeted infant immunisation, those who mostly vaccinate on postnatal wards depend on midwives and maternity records, whereas those who vaccinate primarily in the community rely more often on various healthcare professionals.

Conclusions Targeted infant vaccination has been implemented in most PCTs across the UK. PCTs with selective infant vaccination provide BCG vaccine via a greater variety of healthcare professionals than those with universal infant vaccination policies. Data on vaccine coverage would help evaluate the effectiveness of delivery. Interruptions of delivery noted here emphasise the importance of not just an agreed, standardised, local pathway, but also a named person in charge.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: and

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