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Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in a self-selected sub-Saharan African urban population: a cross-sectional study
  1. Anastase Dzudie1,2,
  2. André Pascal Kengne3,
  3. Walinjom F T Muna4,5,
  4. Hamadou Ba5,
  5. Alain Menanga4,5,
  6. Charles Kouam Kouam6,
  7. Joseph Abah7,
  8. Yves Monkam1,
  9. Christian Biholong1,
  10. Pierre Mintom5,
  11. Félicité Kamdem1,
  12. Armel Djomou1,
  13. Jules Ndjebet1,
  14. Cyrille Wambo1,
  15. Henry Luma1,
  16. Kathleen Blackett Ngu8,
  17. Samuel Kingue4,5,
  18. On behalf of the CCS investigator groupi
  1. 1Department of Internal Medicine, Douala General Hospital, Douala, Cameroon
  2. 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
  3. 3NCRP or Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease, South African Medical Research Council & University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
  4. 4Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon
  5. 5Department of Internal Medicine, Yaounde General Hospital,Douala, Cameroon
  6. 6Department of Internal Medicine, Bafoussam Regional Hospital, Douala, Cameroon
  7. 7Department of Internal Medicine, Bamenda Military Hospital, North West Region, Cameroon
  8. 8Department of Internal Medicine, Yaounde University Teaching Hospital, Yaounde, Cameroon
  1. Correspondence to Dr Anastase Dzudie; aitdzudie{at}


Objectives Hypertension has been established as a major public health problem in Africa, but its specific contributions to disease burden are still incompletely understood. We report the prevalence and determinants of hypertension, detection, treatment and control rates among adults in major cities in Cameroon.

Design Cross-sectional study.

Settings Community-based multicentre study in major cities in Cameroon.

Participants Participants were self-selected urban dwellers from the Center, Littoral, North-West and West Regions, who attended on 17 May 2011 a screening campaign advertised through mass media.

Primary and secondary outcomes measures Hypertension defined as systolic (and/or diastolic) blood pressure (BP)≥ 140 (90) mm Hg, or ongoing BP-lowering medications.

Results In all, 2120 participants (1003 women) were included. Among them, 1007 (prevalence rate 47.5%) had hypertension, including 319 (awareness rate 31.7%) who were aware of their status. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age overall and by sex and region. Among aware hypertensive participants, 191 (treatment rate 59.9%) were on regular BP-lowering medication, and among those treated, 47 (controlled rate 24.6%) were at target BP levels (ie, systolic (and diastolic) BP<140 (90) mm Hg). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, male gender, advanced age, parental history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, elevated waist and elevated body mass index (BMI) were the significant predictors of hypertension. Likewise, male gender, high BMI and physical inactivity were associated with poor control.

Conclusions High prevalence of hypertension with low awareness, treatment and control were found in this urban population; these findings are significant and alarming with consideration to the various improvements in the access to healthcare and the continuing efforts to educate communities over the last few decades.

  • Cardiology
  • Hypertension
  • Epidemiology
  • Public Health

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license. See: and

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