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Original research
Trends in mortality related to unintentional poisoning in the South Asian region from 1990 to 2019: analysis of data from the Global Burden of Disease Study
  1. Nadeem Ullah Khan1,
  2. Uzma Khan1,
  3. Umerdad Khudadad1,
  4. Asrar Ali1,
  5. Ahmed Raheem1,
  6. Shahan Waheed2,
  7. Junaid Abdul Razzak3
  1. 1Department of Emergency Medicine, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
  2. 2Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
  3. 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nadeem Ullah Khan; nadeemullah.khan{at}aku.edu

Abstract

Objective This study aimed to estimate the burden of unintentional poisoning in South Asian countries from 1999 to 2019.

Design An ecological study conducted at the regional level for South Asian countries, based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

Setting We extracted unintentional poisoning data from the Global Burden of Disease Study data set from 1990 to 2019 to assess trends in mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), years of life lost, years lived with disability (YLDs) and causative agents in South Asian countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal and Pakistan).

Outcome measures We determined the per cent change and 95% CI for the period between 1990 and 2019 by age, gender and country. We also conducted Poisson regression to measure the percentage change in the rate per year.

Results The absolute number of deaths due to unintentional poisoning in South Asia decreased (−32.6%) from 10 558 deaths in 1990 to 7112 deaths in 2019. The age standardised death rate from unintentional poisoning in South Asia has seen a downward trend (−55.88%), declining from 0.87 (0.67–1.01) age-standardised per 100 000 population in 1990 to 0.41 (0.34–0.47) in 2019. Among age groups, under 9 years and 10–19 years have seen downward trends for death and DALYs, accounting for −93.5% and −38.3%, respectively. YLDs have seen an upward trend (5.9%), increasing from 10 461.7 per 100 000 in 1990 to 11 084 per 100 000 in 2019. YLDs in women increased by 7.4%, from 11 558.2 per 100 000 to 12 418.3 per 100 000. The incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted by all age groups and gender for DALYs in all South Asian countries has reduced significantly (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.97) from 1990 to 2019.

Conclusion This study showed reduction in death and DALYs due to unintentional poisoning in South Asia except YLDs which is showing an increasing trend. Public health systems should continue efforts to minimise and prevent disabilities arising from unintentional poisoning in South Asia.

  • toxicology
  • epidemiology
  • public health

Data availability statement

Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available. The complete data set used for the analysis in this research is publicly available from the GBD 2019 Study by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and it can be extracted from the Global Health Data Exchange query tool (http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool).

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Data availability statement

Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available. The complete data set used for the analysis in this research is publicly available from the GBD 2019 Study by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) and it can be extracted from the Global Health Data Exchange query tool (http://ghdx.healthdata.org/gbd-results-tool).

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Footnotes

  • Contributors NUK, URK, AA, AR, JAR, and SW contributed to the conception of the study. AR and NUK contributed to data curation. AR and URK contributed to formal analysis, methodology and visualisation. AA contributed to supervision and project administration. NUK, SW, JAR and URK drafted the manuscript. NUK, AR, URK, SW, and JAR reviewed and edited the manuscript. NUK is responsible for the overall content as guarantor.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.