Article Text

Download PDFPDF

DE-PASS Best Evidence Statement (BESt): modifiable determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents aged 5–19 years–a protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
  1. Mohammed Khudair1,
  2. Anna Marcuzzi2,
  3. Kwok Ng3,4,
  4. Gavin Daniel Tempest1,
  5. František Bartoš5,
  6. Ratko Peric6,
  7. Maximilian Maier7,
  8. Flavia Beccia8,
  9. Stefania Boccia8,
  10. Mirko Brandes9,
  11. Greet Cardon10,
  12. Angela Carlin11,
  13. Carolina Castagna8,
  14. Helmi Chaabene12,13,
  15. Anna Chalkley14,15,
  16. Simone Ciaccioni16,
  17. Joanna Cieślińska-Świder17,
  18. Vilma Čingienė18,
  19. Cristina Cortis19,
  20. Chiara Corvino8,
  21. Eco JC de Geus20,21,
  22. Angela Di Baldassarre22,
  23. Andrea Di Credico22,
  24. Patrik Drid23,
  25. Rosa Ma Fernández Tarazaga24,
  26. Francesca Gallè25,
  27. Esther García Sánchez24,
  28. Mekdes Gebremariam26,
  29. Barbara Ghinassi22,
  30. Marios Goudas27,
  31. Grainne Hayes28,29,
  32. Samuel Honorio30,
  33. Pascal Izzicupo22,
  34. Henriette Jahre31,
  35. Judith Jelsma21,
  36. Petra Juric32,
  37. Athanasios Kolovelonis27,
  38. Atle Kongsvold2,
  39. Evangelia Kouidi33,
  40. Fiona Mansergh34,
  41. Bojan Masanovic35,36,
  42. Teferi Mekonnen37,
  43. Paul Jarle Mork2,
  44. Marie Murphy38,
  45. Kelly O’Hara39,
  46. Ayse Ozbil Torun40,
  47. Federico Palumbo16,
  48. Stevo Popovic35,41,
  49. Olaf Prieske42,
  50. Zrinka Puharic43,44,
  51. José Carlos Ribeiro45,
  52. Penny Louise Sheena Rumbold1,
  53. Petru Sandu46,
  54. Maroje Sorić32,47,
  55. Mette Stavnsbo48,
  56. Ioannis Syrmpas27,
  57. Hidde P van der Ploeg21,
  58. Aurélie Van Hoye29,
  59. Sofia Vilela49,50,
  60. Catherine Woods29,
  61. Kathrin Wunsch51,
  62. Laura Capranica16,
  63. Ciaran MacDonncha29,
  64. Fiona Chun Man Ling1
  65. On behalf of DE-PASS
  1. 1Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
  2. 2Department of Public Health and Nursing, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
  3. 3School of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland
  4. 4Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
  5. 5Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  6. 6Exercise Physiology Laboratory, OrthoSport Banja Luka, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina
  7. 7University College London, London, UK
  8. 8Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano, Italy
  9. 9Department of Prevention and Evaluation, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany
  10. 10Department of Movement and Sports Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
  11. 11Centre for Exercise Medicine, Physical Activity and Health, Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Institute, University of Ulster, Jordanstown Campus, UK
  12. 12Department of Sports and Health Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, University of Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
  13. 13High Institute of Sports and Physical Education of Kef, University of Jendouba, Jendouba, Tunisia
  14. 14Faculty of Health Studies, University of Bradford, Bradford, UK
  15. 15Center for Physically Active Learning, Faculty of Education, Arts and Sports, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway, Bergen, Norway
  16. 16Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy
  17. 17Department of Physiotherapy, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education in Katowice, Katowice, Poland
  18. 18Institute of Leadership and Strategic Management, Faculty of Public Governance and Business, Mykolas Romeris University, Vilnius, Lithuania
  19. 19Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health, University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Italy
  20. 20Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands
  21. 21Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Public Health Institute, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  22. 22Department of Medicine and Aging Sciences, Gabriele d'Annunzio University of Chieti and Pescara, Chieti, Italy
  23. 23Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia
  24. 24Fundación para la Formación e Investigación Sanitarias de la Región de Murcia, Murcia, Spain
  25. 25Department of Movement Sciences and Wellbeing, University of Naples-Parthenope, Napoli, Italy
  26. 26Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Institute of Health and Society, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  27. 27Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece
  28. 28Department of Sport and Early Childhood Studies, Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, Moylish Campus, Limerick, Ireland
  29. 29Physical Activity for Health Research Cluster, Health Research Institute, University of Limerick, Limerick, Ireland
  30. 30Sports, Health and Exercise Research Unit (SHERU), Polytechnic Institute of Castelo Branco, Castelo Branco, Portugal
  31. 31Department of Physiotherapy, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway
  32. 32Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia
  33. 33Laboratory of Sports Medicne, Department of Physical 95 Education and Sports Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece
  34. 34Health and Wellbeing Programme, Department of Health, Dublin, Ireland
  35. 35Faculty for Sport and Physical Education, University of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro
  36. 36Montenegrin Sports Academy, Podgorica, Montenegro
  37. 37Department of Nutrition, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  38. 38Doctoral College, Ulster University, Newtownabbey, UK
  39. 39Sport Science Department, University of Beira Interior, Covilha, Portugal
  40. 40Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
  41. 41Western Balkan Sport Innovation Lab, Podgorica, Montenegro
  42. 42University of Applied Sciences for Sport and Management Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany
  43. 43University of Applied Sciences Bjelovar, Bjelovar, Croatia
  44. 44Faculty of dental medicine and health, Osijek, Croatia
  45. 45Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  46. 46National Institute of Public Health in Romania, Bucharest, Romania
  47. 47Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  48. 48Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway
  49. 49EPIUnit - Institute of Public Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
  50. 50Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health (ITR), Porto, Portugal
  51. 51Institute of Sports and Sports Science, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Mohammed Khudair; mohammed2.khudair{at}


Introduction Physical activity among children and adolescents remains insufficient, despite the substantial efforts made by researchers and policymakers. Identifying and furthering our understanding of potential modifiable determinants of physical activity behaviour (PAB) and sedentary behaviour (SB) is crucial for the development of interventions that promote a shift from SB to PAB. The current protocol details the process through which a series of systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses (MAs) will be conducted to produce a best-evidence statement (BESt) and inform policymakers. The overall aim is to identify modifiable determinants that are associated with changes in PAB and SB in children and adolescents (aged 5–19 years) and to quantify their effect on, or association with, PAB/SB.

Methods and analysis A search will be performed in MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science, PsychINFO and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled trials (CTs) that investigate the effect of interventions on PAB/SB and longitudinal studies that investigate the associations between modifiable determinants and PAB/SB at multiple time points will be sought. Risk of bias assessments will be performed using adapted versions of Cochrane’s RoB V.2.0 and ROBINS-I tools for RCTs and CTs, respectively, and an adapted version of the National Institute of Health’s tool for longitudinal studies. Data will be synthesised narratively and, where possible, MAs will be performed using frequentist and Bayesian statistics. Modifiable determinants will be discussed considering the settings in which they were investigated and the PAB/SB measurement methods used.

Ethics and dissemination No ethical approval is needed as no primary data will be collected. The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications and academic conferences where possible. The BESt will also be shared with policy makers within the DE-PASS consortium in the first instance.

Systematic review registration CRD42021282874.

  • public health
  • health policy
  • community child health

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Twitter @mo_Khudair, @gdtempest, @RatkoPeric, @MirkoBrandes, @AngelaCarlin7, @AnnaChalkley, @cortis_cristina, @drflingUK

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it first published. Author name 'Laura Capranica' has been updated.

  • Contributors The current systematic review protocol was produced by members of the COST Action CA19101 Determinants of Physical Activities in Settings (DE-PASS). The protocol was conceived and designed by CM, LC, FCML, MK, AM, GDT and KN. The methodology was planned and outlined by CM, FCML, MK, AM, GDT, KN, FB, RP and MM. The protocol was initially drafted by MK, AM, GDT and FCML. Subsequent drafts were reviewed by the included members of DE-PASS: FrantišekB, RP, MM, FlaviaB, SB, MB, GC, AC, CarolinaC, HC, AC, SC, JC-S, VČ, CristinaC, ChiaraC, EJdG, ADB, ADC, PD, RMFT, FG, EGS, MekdesG, BG, MariosG, GH, SH, PI, HJ, JJ, PJ, AthanasiosK, AtleK, EK, FM, BM, TM, PJM, MM, KOH, AOT, FP, SP, OP, ZP, JCR, PR, PS, MarojeS, MetteS, IS, HPvdP, AVH, SV, CW, KW, LC and CM. Revisions were made by MK, AM, GDT, KN and FCML. All authors have read and agreed to the submitted version of the manuscript.

  • Funding This article is based on work from COST Action CA19101 Determinants of Physical Activities in Settings (DE-PASS), supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology). The content of this article reflects only the authors’ views and the European Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is a funding agency for research and innovation networks. Our Actions help connect research initiatives across Europe and enable scientists to grow their ideas by sharing them with their peers. This boosts their research, career and innovation.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.