Article Text

Smoking cessation interventions and implementations in Japan: a study protocol for a scoping review and supplemental survey
  1. Tomomi Nagasawa1,2,
  2. Junko Saito2,
  3. Miyuki Odawara2,
  4. Haruhiko Imamura3,
  5. Yuki Kaji2,
  6. Keiichi Yuwaki2,4,
  7. Kazuya Nogi5,
  8. Masakazu Nakamura6,
  9. Taichi Shimazu2
  1. 1Department of Health Communications, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
  2. 2Division of Behavioral Sciences, National Cancer Center Institute for Cancer Control, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
  3. 3Graduate School of Health and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Nagano, Nagano-shi, Nagano, Japan
  4. 4Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
  5. 5Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Toho University, Ota-ku, Tokyo, Japan
  6. 6Health Promotion Research Center, Institute of Community Medicine, Japan Association for Development of Community Medicine, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Dr Taichi Shimazu; tshimazu{at}


Introduction Despite various tobacco control measures in Japan, smoking remains a leading cause of mortality. This manuscript outlines proposed methodology for scoping review that aims to describe the knowledge gaps for local-level smoking cessation interventions in Japan, their implementation barriers and facilitators, and the use of implementation strategies.

Methods and analysis A scoping review will be conducted using the updated guidelines of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-extension for Scoping Reviews to systematically search peer-reviewed journal articles and grey literature to identify studies on smoking cessation interventions in Japan. The six-stage scoping review model will involve (1) identifying the research question; (2) identifying relevant studies; (3) selecting studies; (4) charting data; (5) collating, summarising and reporting the results; and (6) consultation exercise. Since there is little information available on the implementation context in the literature, we will use grey literature to identify organisations implementing smoking cessation interventions and conduct a cross-sectional survey among them to supplement the information gap. Based on a literature review, findings will be organised on smoking cessation interventions in local settings (ie, communities, workplaces, schools and hospitals) at the population, provider and individual levels in Japan to understand knowledge gaps. We will adopt the consolidated framework for implementation research to identify implementation barriers and facilitators, and the expert recommendations for implementing change to identify implementation strategies.

Ethics and dissemination This study does not require ethical committee approval. The scoping review method will be robust in searching available smoking cessation interventions in Japan. The findings of this study will be compiled as case studies of best practices on smoking cessation interventions and disseminated to relevant stakeholders at the public and private levels through publications, presentations in conferences and stakeholder meetings.

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  • TN and JS are joint first authors.

  • TN and JS contributed equally.

  • Contributors JS, TN and TS conceived the idea and developed the research questions and methods. TN and JS contributed meaningfully to drafting and editing. TS approved the final manuscript. MO, HI, YK, KY, KN and MN aided in developing the research questions and study methods, contributed meaningfully to drafting and editing the manuscript and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding This work is supported by a Health Labour Sciences Research Grant (Comprehensive Research on Lifestyle Related Diseases including Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes Mellitus) of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (21FA1001), the National Cancer Center Research and Development Fund (30-A-18, 2021-A-19), and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) KAKENHI Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (21K17319).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.