Objective To characterise the long-term outcomes of patients with COVID-19 admitted to a large New York City medical centre at 3 and 6 months after hospitalisation and describe their healthcare usage, symptoms, morbidity and mortality.
Design Retrospective cohort through manual chart review of the electronic medical record.
Setting NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, a quaternary care academic medical centre in New York City.
Participants The first 1190 consecutive patients with symptoms of COVID-19 who presented to the hospital for care between 1 March and 8 April 2020 and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcriptase PCR assay.
Main outcome measures Type and frequency of follow-up encounters, self-reported symptoms, morbidity and mortality at 3 and 6 months after presentation, respectively; patient disposition information prior to admission, at discharge, and at 3 and 6 months after hospital presentation.
Results Of the 1190 reviewed patients, 929 survived their initial hospitalisation and 261 died. Among survivors, 570 had follow-up encounters (488 at 3 months and 364 at 6 months). An additional 33 patients died in the follow-up period. In the first 3 months after admission, most encounters were telehealth visits (59%). Cardiopulmonary symptoms (35.7% and 28%), especially dyspnoea (22.1% and 15.9%), were the most common reported symptoms at 3-month and 6-month encounters, respectively. Additionally, a large number of patients reported generalised (26.4%) or neuropsychiatric (24.2%) symptoms 6 months after hospitalisation. Patients with severe COVID-19 were more likely to have reduced mobility, reduced independence or a new dialysis requirement in the 6 months after hospitalisation.
Conclusions Patients hospitalised with SARS-CoV-2 infection reported persistent symptoms up to 6 months after diagnosis. These results highlight the long-term morbidity of COVID-19 and its burden on patients and healthcare resources.
- infectious diseases
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request. Requests for the statistical code and data set can be made to the corresponding author.
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Contributors SMS is the first author. JEZ and DC share senior authorship. Study conception and design: SMS, JEZ, DC, LP, MGA, SLB, CLS, JRT, RC. Manuscript composition: SMS, MAA, CD, DC. Acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data: SMS, JEZ, DC, LP, MAA, ALI, SYR-J, AMK, DL, AAH, LMZ, KEL, KG, MCL, NC, CPS, SSM, ELM, HS. Review and revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: SMS, LP, MAA, DC, DAT, ALI, SYR-J, AMK, DL, AAH, LMZ, KEL, KG, MCL, NC, CPS, SSM, ELM, HS, GH, KN, RC, MTY, MES, JEZ, DC. Study supervision and guarantors of the study: SMS, JEZ, DC. The corresponding author attests that all listed authors meet the authorship criteria and that no others meeting the criteria have been omitted.
Funding Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award number K23AI150378 (JEZ), L30AI133789 (JEZ), UM1AI069470 and supplement to the award (DAT, MES, JEZ). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. SMS is supported by T32AI100852-08. KEL is supported by T32DK083256-12S1. GH is supported by R01LM006910. No funding organisation or sponsor was involved in the study design, data collection or analysis, manuscript composition, or the decision to submit for publication.
Competing interests GH reports grants from Janssen Research, outside the submitted work.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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