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Association between vaping and health outcomes in patients with opioid use disorder: a systematic review protocol
  1. Nitika Sanger1,2,
  2. Alessia D'Elia2,3,
  3. Stephanie Sanger4,
  4. Tea Rosic2,
  5. M Constantine Samaan5,
  6. Flávio Kapczinski2,
  7. Russell J de Souza6,
  8. Lehana Thabane6,7,8,
  9. Zainab Samaan2,6,9
  1. 1Medical Science Program, McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  3. 3Neuroscience Graduate Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontrio, Canada
  4. 4Health Sciences Library, McMaster University Faculty of Health Sciences, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  5. 5Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, McMaster Children's Hospital, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  6. 6Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  7. 7Population Health Research Institute, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  8. 8Father Sean O’Sullivan Research Centre, St. Joseph’s Healthcare, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  9. 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Zainab Samaan; samaanz{at}


Introduction Vaping behaviour has increased in popularity and is particularly important to examine how it effects health outcomes in vulnerable populations, including those with opioid use disorder (OUD). With polysubstance use including cigarette and cannabis use being highly prevalent in the OUD population and cannabis/nicotine increasingly being consumed by vaping, vaping may have an important contribution to health outcomes in these individuals. The primary objective of this review is to systematically assess the literature related to patients with OUD and the effects vaping has shown on their physical and mental health.

Method and analysis A systematic search of databases including MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, the National Institutes for Health Clinical Trials Registry and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to 31 December 2020 will be conducted. Identified citations will be screened by two reviewers to determine eligibility at the title and abstract level, and then at the full text and data extraction phases. Any disagreements in inclusion will be resolved through unblinded discussion by these reviewers, with any remaining disagreements being resolved by a third reviewer. Data collection from eligible studies will be conducted according to the data extraction form tested prior to abstraction. Included studies will be examined for quality and bias and will be meta-analysed where applicable. This protocol is reported in keeping with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Protocols guidelines.

Ethics and dissemination The results for this review will be disseminated through publications in peer-reviewed journals, posters and presentations at scientific conferences. Additionally, we are collaborating with the Canadian Addiction Treatment Centre clinics to help disseminate the findings for this review. As this is a systematic review, no ethics approval is needed.

Review registration number CRD42020178441.

  • mental health
  • substance misuse
  • statistics & research methods

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

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  • NS and AD contributed equally.

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it first published. The provenance and peer review statement has been included.

  • Contributors NS and AD: contributed to the conception and design of the study, development of data extraction forms, search strategy, manuscript writing and final review of the manuscript. SS: contributed to the development of the search strategy and final review of the manuscript. FK, MCS, RJdS and LT: contributed to the critical revision and final review of the manuscript. ZS: contributed to the conception and design of the study, critical revision and final approval of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding ZS is supported by grants from CIHR Awards #156306 and #155404.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.