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Original research
What are the development priorities for management of type 2 diabetes by general practitioners in Ningbo, China: a qualitative study of patients’ and practitioners’ perspectives
  1. Angharad Woolley1,2,
  2. Li Li3,
  3. Josie Solomon4,
  4. Jialin Li3,
  5. Kai Huang5,
  6. Punam Chahal1,2,
  7. Priya Chahal1,2,
  8. Gloria Tu1,2,
  9. Pritpal Chahal6,7,
  10. Kaushik Chattopadhyay8,9
  1. 1Department of Research and Knowledge Exchange, University of Nottingham, Ningbo, China
  2. 2Department of Research and Innovation, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
  3. 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, China
  4. 4School of Pharmacy, University of Lincoln, Brayford Campus, Lincoln, United Kingdom
  5. 5Department of General Practice, Ningbo First Hospital, Ningbo, China
  6. 6Health Education England, Leeds, United Kingdom
  7. 7Division of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
  8. 8Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
  9. 9The Nottingham Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare: a Joanna Briggs Institute Centre of Excellence, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kaushik Chattopadhyay; kaushik.chattopadhyay{at}


Objectives To explore patients’ and general practitioners’ (GPs’) perspectives on primary care management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Ningbo, China. We aimed to understand the current benefits and challenges and to identify development priorities.

Design Exploratory qualitative descriptive study using face-to-face interviews and analysed by thematic, inductive analysis.

Setting 11 primary care facilities spread across the city of Ningbo, China.

Participants 23 patients with T2DM and 20 GPs involved in caring for patients with T2DM.

Results GPs were considered the first point of contact and providers of information. However, the care varied, and many GPs lacked confidence and felt overworked. The medication was a particularly weak area. The diagnostic screening commenced late, leading to crisis presentations. Patients were variably informed about their condition, contributing to poor adherence.

Conclusions Future developments of primary care for T2DM in Ningbo should centre around improving GP confidence and workload and patient education and adherence.

  • general diabetes
  • primary care
  • qualitative research
  • public health
  • international health services

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  • AW and LL are joint first authors.

  • Contributors AW and LL are co-first authors. Conception and design: AW, KC, JS, JL, PritC. Acquisition of data: AW, JL, KH, PunaC, PriyC, GT, PritC, LL. Analysis and interpretation of data: AW, KC, JS, PunaC. Drafting of the manuscript: AW, KC, JS, LL. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: all. Statistical analysis: not applicable. Obtaining funding: PritC, KC. Administrative, technical or material support: JL, KH, PriyC, GT, LL. Supervision: KC, JS, PritC, LL.

  • Funding This work was supported by the University of Nottingham, Health Education England and Ningbo First Hospital.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee, University of Nottingham (ethics reference no: 132-1710) and Ningbo First Hospital Research Ethics Committee.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available since all the interview transcripts are confidential, as per the protocol.

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