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A/C study protocol: a cross-sectional study of HIV epidemiology among African, Caribbean and Black people in Ontario
  1. Lawrence Mbuagbaw1,
  2. Wangari Tharao2,
  3. Winston Husbands3,
  4. Laron E Nelson4,
  5. Muna Aden2,
  6. Keresa Arnold5,
  7. Shamara Baidoobonso5,
  8. Charles Dabone6,
  9. OmiSoore Dryden7,
  10. Egbe Etowa6,
  11. Jemila Hamid8,
  12. Fatimah Jackson-Best9,
  13. Bagnini Kohoun6,
  14. Daeria O Lawson1,
  15. Aisha K Lofters10,
  16. Henry Luyombya3,
  17. Tola Mbulaheni11,
  18. Paul Mkandawire12,
  19. Mary Ndungu13,
  20. Agatha Nyambi3,
  21. Suzanne Obiorah14,
  22. Fanta Ongoiba13,
  23. Clémence Ongolo-Zogo1,
  24. Chinedu Oraka15,
  25. Rita Shahin16,
  26. Sanni Yaya17,
  27. Andrew Hendricks15,
  28. Akalewold Gebremeskel6,
  29. Haoua Inoua18,
  30. Josephine Etowa6
  1. 1Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
  2. 2Women's Health in Women's Hands Community Health Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  3. 3Ontario HIV Treatment Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  4. 4School of Nursing, Yale University, West Haven, Connecticut, USA
  5. 5African and Caribbean Council on HIV/AIDS in Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  6. 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  7. 7Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  8. 8Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  9. 9Black Health Alliance, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  10. 10St Michael's Hospital Centre for Urban Health Solutions, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  11. 11Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  12. 12Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  13. 13Africans in Partnership, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  14. 14Somerset West Community Health Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  15. 15Ottawa Public Health, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  16. 16Toronto Public Health, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  17. 17Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  18. 18AIDS Commitee of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  1. Correspondence to Dr Lawrence Mbuagbaw; mbuagblc{at}


Introduction African, Caribbean and Black (ACB) communities are disproportionately infected by HIV in Ontario, Canada. They constitute only 5% of the population of Ontario yet account for 25% of new diagnoses of HIV. The aim of this study is to understand underlying factors that augment the HIV risk in ACB communities and to inform policy and practice in Ontario.

Methods and analysis We will conduct a cross-sectional study of first-generation and second-generation ACB adults aged 15–64 in Toronto (n=1000) and Ottawa (n=500) and collect data on sociodemographic information, sexual behaviours, substance use, blood donation, access and use of health services and HIV-related care. We will use dried blood spot testing to determine the incidence and prevalence of HIV infection among ACB people, and link participant data to administrative databases to investigate health service access and use. Factors associated with key outcomes (HIV infection, testing behaviours, knowledge about HIV transmission and acquisition, HIV vulnerability, access and use of health services) will be evaluated using generalised linear mixed models, adjusted for relevant covariates.

Ethics and dissemination This study has been reviewed and approved by the following Research Ethics Boards: Toronto Public Health, Ottawa Public Health, Laurentian University; the University of Ottawa and the University of Toronto. Our findings will be disseminated as community reports, fact sheets, digital stories, oral and poster presentations, peer-reviewed manuscripts and social media.

  • HIV & AIDS
  • epidemiology
  • public health

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

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  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it was published. The author name has been updated as Akalewold Gebremeskel.

  • Contributors LM wrote the first draft. LM, WT, WH, LEN, MA, KA, SB, CD, OD, EE, JH, FJ-B, BK, DOL, ALK, HL, TM, PM, MN, AN, SO, CO-Z, CO, RS, SY, AH, AG, HI and JE codesigned the study and developed data collection instruments. All authors reviewed and approved the final version.

  • Funding This work is supported by an award/grant from The Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN).This study was supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research through an Operating Grant in the HIV/AIDS Community Based Research (CBR) Programme.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research. Refer to the Methods section for further details.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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