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Rationale and protocol for the 7- and 8-year longitudinal assessments of eye health in a cohort of young adults in the Raine Study
  1. Samantha Sze-Yee Lee1,
  2. Gareth Lingham2,
  3. Seyhan Yazar1,3,
  4. Paul G Sanfilippo4,
  5. Jason Charng1,
  6. Fred K Chen1,5,
  7. Alex W Hewitt4,6,
  8. Fletcher Ng2,
  9. Christopher Hammond7,
  10. Leon M Straker8,
  11. Peter R Eastwood9,10,
  12. Stuart MacGregor11,
  13. Kathryn A Rose12,
  14. Robyn M Lucas13,
  15. Jeremy A Guggenheim14,
  16. Seang-Mei Saw15,16,
  17. Minas T Coroneo17,
  18. Mingguang He4,18,
  19. David A Mackey1,4
  1. 1Centre for Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
  2. 2Lions Eye Institute, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
  3. 3Single Cell and Computational Genomics Lab, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, Darlinghurst, New South Wales, Australia
  4. 4Centre for Eye Research Australia Ltd, University of Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, East Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  5. 5Department of Ophthalmology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  6. 6School of Medicine, Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
  7. 7Department of Twin Research & Genetic Epidemiology, King’s College London, London, UK
  8. 8School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia
  9. 9Centre for Sleep Science, School of Human Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia, Australia
  10. 10Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, West Australian Sleep Disorders Research Institute, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia
  11. 11Genetics and Population Health, Queensland Institute of Medical Research - QIMR, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
  12. 12University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  13. 13Australian National University, Research School of Population Health, College of Health and Medicine, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
  14. 14School of Optometry and Vision Science, Cardiff University, Cardiff, South Glamorgan, UK
  15. 15Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore
  16. 16Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  17. 17Department of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  18. 18State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
  1. Correspondence to Dr Samantha Sze-Yee Lee;{at}


Introduction Eye diseases and visual impairment more commonly affect elderly adults, thus, the majority of ophthalmic cohort studies have focused on older adults. Cohort studies on the ocular health of younger adults, on the other hand, have been few. The Raine Study is a longitudinal study that has been following a cohort since their birth in 1989–1991. As part of the 20-year follow-up of the Raine Study, participants underwent a comprehensive eye examination. As part of the 27- and 28-year follow-ups, eye assessments are being conducted and the data collected will be compared with those of the 20-year follow-up. This will provide an estimate of population incidence and updated prevalence of ocular conditions such as myopia and keratoconus, as well as longitudinal change in ocular parameters in young Australian adults. Additionally, the data will allow exploration of the environmental, health and genetic factors underlying inter-subject differential long-term ocular changes.

Methods and analysis Participants are being contacted via telephone, email and/or social media and invited to participate in the eye examination. At the 27-year follow-up, participants completed a follow-up eye screening, which assessed visual acuity, autorefraction, ocular biometry and ocular sun exposure. Currently, at the 28-year follow-up, a comprehensive eye examination is being conducted which, in addition to all the eye tests performed at the 27-year follow-up visit, includes tonometry, optical coherence tomography, funduscopy and anterior segment topography, among others. Outcome measures include the incidence of refractive error and pterygium, an updated prevalence of these conditions, and the 8-year change in ocular parameters.

Ethics and dissemination The Raine Study is registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. The Gen2 20-year, 27-year and 28-year follow-ups are approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee of the University of Western Australia. Findings resulting from the study will be published in health or medical journals and presented at conferences.

Trial registration number ACTRN12617001599369; Active, not recruiting.

  • cohort study
  • myopia
  • ocular measures
  • Raine Study
  • young adults

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  • Contributors SS-YL, SY and DAM were involved in the conception and design of the manuscript, with SS-YL responsible for the initial draft. DAM, SY, SS-YL, GL, FKC, LMS and PRE were responsible for the conception, design, and implementation of the eye examination in the 27-year and/or 28-year follow-ups of the Raine Study. SS-YL, GL, DAM, JC, FN, SY, FKC, LMS and PRE are involved in the data collection for the eye examination in the 27-year and/or 28-year follow-ups of the Raine Study. PGS is the main statistician for the study. Funding was obtained by DAM, FKC, AWH, CH, SM, KAR, RML, MH, JAG, LMS, MTC, S-MS and PRE.

  • Funding The core management of the Raine Study is funded by the University of Western Australia, Australia; the Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, Australia; Raine Medical Research Foundation, Australia; Women’s and Infant’s Research Foundation, Australia; Curtin University, Australia; Murdoch University, Australia; Edith Cowan University, Australia; and the University of Notre Dame, Australia. The Generation-2 20-year follow-up of the Raine Study was funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia: project grant no.: 1 021 105. The Generation-2 28-year follow-up of the Raine Study was funded by the NHMRC, Australia: project grants 1 121 979 and 1 126 494. The NHMRC additionally supported SY (Early Career Fellowship), PGS (Early Career Fellowship), FKC (MRFF Career Development Fellowship), AWH (Practitioner Fellowship), SM (Senior Research Fellowship) and PRE (Senior Research Fellowship)

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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