Article Text

Computerised cognitive training in Parkinson’s disease: a protocol for a systematic review and updated meta-analysis
  1. Hanna Malmberg Gavelin1,2,
  2. Magdalena Domellöf2,
  3. Isabella Leung3,4,
  4. Anna Stigsdotter Neely5,
  5. Carsten Finke6,7,
  6. Amit Lampit1,6,7
  1. 1Academic Unit for Psychiatry of Old Age, Department of Psychiatry, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  2. 2Department of Psychology, Umea University, Umea, Sweden
  3. 3Healthy Brain Ageing Program, Brain and Mind Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
  4. 4Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia
  5. 5Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden
  6. 6Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  7. 7Berlin School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Dr Amit Lampit; amit.lampit{at}


Introduction Cognitive impairment is recognised as an important non-motor symptom in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and there is a need for evidence-based non-pharmacological interventions that may prevent or slow cognitive decline in this patient group. One such intervention is computerised cognitive training (CCT), which has shown efficacious for cognition across older adult populations. This systematic review aims to investigate the efficacy of CCT across cognitive, psychosocial and functional domains for people with PD and examine study and intervention design factors that could moderate CCT effects on cognition.

Methods and analysis Randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of CCT in patients with PD without dementia, on cognitive, psychosocial or functional outcomes, will be included. The primary outcome is overall cognitive function. Secondary outcomes are domain-specific cognitive function, psychosocial functioning and functional abilities. We systematically searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO through 14 May 2020 to identify relevant literature. Risk of bias will be assessed using the revised Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Effect sizes will be calculated as standardised mean difference of baseline to postintervention change (Hedges’ g) with 95% CI for each eligible outcome measure. Pooling of outcomes across studies will be conducted using random-effects models, accounting for dependency structure of effect sizes within studies. Heterogeneity will be assessed using τ2 and I2 statistic. Potential moderators, based on key study and intervention design factors, will be investigated using mixed-effects meta-regression models.

Ethics and dissemination No ethical approval is required. The findings will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

PROSPERO registration number CRD42020185386.

  • Parkinson's disease
  • rehabilitation medicine
  • geriatric medicine

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  • Contributors Guarantor: AL. Design and conceptualisation: HMG and AL. Data collection: HMG, MD and IL. Risk of bias assessment: HMG, MD and IL. Data analysis and interpretation: HMG, MD, IL, ASN, CF and AL. Drafting and revising the manuscript: HMG, MD, IL, ASN, CF and AL.

  • Funding This work was supported by a CR Roper Fellowship from the University of Melbourne provided to AL (2020-1), and by the Swedish Research Council (2017-02371) as well as the Swedish Research Council for Health, Working-Life and Welfare (2014-01654) awarded to ASN.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.

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