Article Text

Download PDFPDF

FACT: a randomised controlled trial to assess the feasibility of QbTest in the assessment process of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for young people in prison—a feasibility trial protocol
  1. Charlotte Lennox1,
  2. Charlotte Lucy Hall2,
  3. Lesley-Anne Carter3,
  4. Bryony Beresford4,
  5. Susan Young5,
  6. Abdullah Kraam6,
  7. Nikki Brown7,
  8. Lloyd Wilkinson-Cunningham8,
  9. Mindy Reeves9,
  10. Prathiba Chitsabesan10
  1. 1 Division of Psychology and Mental Health, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  2. 2 Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK
  3. 3 Centre for Biostatistics, Division of Population Health, Health Services Research and Primary Care, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  4. 4 Social Policy Research Unit, University of York, York, North Yorkshire, UK
  5. 5 Department of Clinical and Forensic Psychology, Psychology Services Limited, London, UK
  6. 6 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, Rotherham Doncaster and South Humber Mental Health NHS Foundation Trust, Doncaster, UK
  7. 7 Division of Psychiatry & Applied Psychology, Institute of Mental Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, Nottinghamshire, UK
  8. 8 Research and Development, Leeds Community Healthcare NHS Trust, Leeds, UK
  9. 9 Medical School, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
  10. 10 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service, Pennine Care NHS Foundation Trust, Ashton-under-Lyne, Lancashire, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Charlotte Lennox; charlotte.lennox{at}


Introduction The prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within the Children and Young People Secure Estate (CYPSE) is much higher than seen in the general population. To make a diagnosis of ADHD, clinicians draw on information from multiple sources, including parents and teachers. However, obtaining these is particularly difficult for young people in the secure estate. There is increasing evidence in the community that QbTest is able to assist in the accurate and earlier diagnosis of ADHD. The objective of this study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of QbTest in the assessment of ADHD within the CYPSE.

Methods and analysis A single-centre parallel group feasibility randomised controlled trial will be conducted. Sixty young people within the CYPSE identified as displaying possible symptoms of ADHD will be randomised to the intervention arm (n=30; QbTest plus usual care) or control arm (n=30; usual care). Primary analyses will be descriptive and a process evaluation will be conducted to assess the contexts involved in implementing the intervention. Interviews will be conducted to explore acceptability and thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data.

Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by National Health Service Wales research ethics committee 3 (18/WA/0347) on 15 February 2019. The findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at relevant conferences and disseminated to the public via summaries cocreated with our patient and public involvement group.

Trial registration number ISRCTN17402196

  • child & adolescent psychiatry
  • forensic psychiatry
  • clinical trials
  • qualitative research

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See:

Statistics from


  • Presented at This paper presents independent research funded by the National Institute for Health Research under its Research for Patient Benefit Programme (Grant Reference Number PB-PG-1216-20007).

  • Contributors PC is the chief investigator and has overall responsibility for the design, conduct and decision to submit for publication. The study design was conceived by PC, CL (trial manager) and CLH (coinvestigator). CL and PC wrote the protocol with approval from all authors. L-AC (coinvestigator) is the study statistician and designed and wrote the analysis plan. L-AC, CLH, BB, SY, NB and AK are coinvestigators on the NIHR RfPB grant and contributed to the study design, reviewed and commentated on the drafts of the manuscript. LW-C and MR are the researchers collecting the trial data. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The study is funded by the NIHR RfPB (Grant number: PB-PG-1216-20007).

  • Disclaimer The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NIHR or the Department of Health and Social Care.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval This protocol (version 2) was approved by NHS Wales REC 3 (18/WA/0347) 15 February 2019 and HMPPS NRC 2018-315.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; peer reviewed for ethical and funding approval prior to submission.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.