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Socioeconomic gradients of adverse birth outcomes and related maternal factors in rural and urban Alberta, Canada: a concentration index approach
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  • Hina Mahmood, Ayesha Humayun
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    • Hina Mahmood, Assistant Professor Community Medicine Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, Lahore, Pakistan
    • Other Contributors:
      • Ayesha Humayun, Professor of Public Health & Community Medicine

    Dear Editor,
    Socioeconomic status (SES) has long been found to be significantly associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. It is related to health at all levels (1). A weak association between SES and maternal health care is found in countries where females are more educated (2). In developing countries like Pakistan where maternal mortality is still high despite efforts been made (3). This poor maternal health care use leads to maternal depression leading to CMH (Child Mental Health) issues (4). Therefore, efforts should be targeted to improve maternal health care use in order to ensure physical and mental health of the future generation irrespective of their SES.
    1. Adler NE, Boyce WT, Chesney MA, Folkman S, Syme SL. Socioeconomic inequalities in health. No easy solution. Jama. 1993;269(24):3140-5.
    2. McTavish S, Moore S, Harper S, Lynch J. National female literacy, individual socio-economic status, and maternal health care use in sub-Saharan Africa. Social science & medicine. 2010;71(11):1958-63.
    3. Mumtaz Z, Salway S, Shanner L, Zaman S, Laing L. Addressing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan: gender, class and exclusion. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2012;12(1):80.
    4. Maselko J, Sikander S, Bangash O, Bhalotra S, Franz L, Ganga N, et al. Child mental health and maternal depression history in Pakistan. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. 2016;51(1):49-62.

    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.