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Original research
Application of a Common Data Model (CDM) to rank the paediatric user and prescription prevalence of 15 different drug classes in South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and Australia: an observational, descriptive study
  1. Ruth Brauer1,
  2. Ian Chi Kei Wong1,2,
  3. Kenneth KC Man1,2,
  4. Nicole L Pratt3,
  5. Rae Woong Park4,
  6. Soo-Yeon Cho4,
  7. Yu-Chuan (Jack) Li5,6,7,8,
  8. Usman Iqbal6,9,10,
  9. Phung-Anh Alex Nguyen6,
  10. Martijn Schuemie11,12
  1. 1 Research Department of Practice and Policy, School of Pharmacy, University College London, London, UK
  2. 2 Centre for Safe Medication Practice and Research, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacy, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  3. 3 Quality Use of Medicines and Pharmacy Research Centre, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
  4. 4 Department of Biomedical Informatics, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea
  5. 5 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Informatics, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taiwan Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
  6. 6 The International Center for Health Information Technology (ICHIT), Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
  7. 7 Department of Dermatology, Wan Fang Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
  8. 8 International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), Geneva, Switzerland
  9. 9 Masters & PhD Program in Global Health Department, College of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
  10. 10 Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Shaikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al-Nahyan Medical College, Shaikh Zayed Medical Complex, Lahore, Pakistan
  11. 11 Epidemiology Analytics, Janssen Research and Development, Titusville, New Jersey, USA
  12. 12 Department of Biostatistics, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Professor Ian Chi Kei Wong; i.wong{at}


Objective To measure the paediatric user and prescription prevalence in inpatient and ambulatory settings in South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan and Australia by age and gender. A further objective was to list the most commonly used drugs per drug class, per country.

Design and setting Hospital inpatient and insurance paediatric healthcare data from the following databases were used to conduct this descriptive drug utilisation study: (i) the South Korean Ajou University School of Medicine database; (ii) the Hong Kong Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System; (iii) the Japan Medical Data Center; (iv) Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database and (v) the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Country-specific data were transformed into the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model.

Patients Children (≤18 years) with at least 1 day of observation in any of the respective databases from January 2009 until December 2013 were included.

Main outcome measures For each drug class, we assessed the per-protocol overall user and prescription prevalence rates (per 1000 persons) per country and setting.

Results Our study population comprised 1 574 524 children (52.9% male). The highest proportion of dispensings was recorded in the youngest age category (<2 years) for inpatients (45.1%) with a relatively high user prevalence of analgesics and antibiotics. Adrenergics, antihistamines, mucolytics and corticosteroids were used in 10%–15% of patients. For ambulatory patients, the highest proportion of dispensings was recorded in the middle age category (2–11 years, 67.1%) with antibiotics the most dispensed drug overall.

Conclusions Country-specific paediatric drug utilisation patterns were described, ranked and compared between four East Asian countries and Australia. The widespread use of mucolytics in East Asia warrants further investigation.

  • clinical pharmacology
  • epidemiology
  • paediatrics

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  • Contributors MS and ICKW designed the study. MS wrote the protocol for this study and was responsible for the statistical programming. RB wrote the first draft of the manuscript. MS, KKCM, NLP, RWP, S-YC, Y-CL, UI and P-AAN ran country-specific analyses and contributed original data. All authors contributed to critical revisions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. Rae Woong Park was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea [grant number : HI16C0992] and the Bio Industrial Strategic Technology Development Program (20003883) funded By the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea).

  • Disclaimer MS is an employee of Janssen Research & Development. None of the remaining authors has financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval This study received approval from the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Cluster (HKU/HA HKW IRB), reference number: UW 13–504.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.

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