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Original research
Yoga practice in the UK: a cross-sectional survey of motivation, health benefits and behaviours
  1. Tina Cartwright1,
  2. Heather Mason2,
  3. Alan Porter1,
  4. Karen Pilkington1,3
  1. 1 School of Social Sciences, University of Westminster, London, UK
  2. 2 The Minded Institute, Arlington House, London, UK
  3. 3 School of Health and Care Professions, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Tina Cartwright; T.Cartwright{at}


Objectives Despite the popularity of yoga and evidence of its positive effects on physical and mental health, little is known about yoga practice in the UK. This study investigated the characteristics of people who practise yoga, reasons for initiating and maintaining practice, and perceived impact of yoga on health and well-being.

Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional online anonymous survey distributed through UK-based yoga organisations, studios and events, through email invites and flyers. 2434 yoga practitioners completed the survey, including 903 yoga teachers: 87% were women, 91% white and 71% degree educated; mean age was 48.7 years.

Main outcome measures Perceived impact of yoga on health conditions, health outcomes and injuries. Relationships between yoga practice and measures of health, lifestyle, stress and well-being.

Results In comparison with national population norms, participants reported significantly higher well-being but also higher anxiety; lower perceived stress, body mass index and incidence of obesity, and higher rates of positive health behaviours. 47% reported changing their motivations to practise yoga, with general wellness and fitness key to initial uptake, and stress management and spirituality important to current practice. 16% of participants reported starting yoga to manage a physical or mental health condition. Respondents reported the value of yoga for a wide range of health conditions, most notably for musculoskeletal and mental health conditions. 20.7% reported at least one yoga-related injury over their lifetime. Controlling for demographic factors, frequency of yoga practice accounted for small but significant variance in health-related regression models (p<0.001).

Conclusion The findings of this first detailed UK survey were consistent with surveys in other Western countries. Yoga was perceived to have a positive impact on physical and mental health conditions and was linked to positive health behaviours. Further investigation of yoga’s role in self-care could inform health-related challenges faced by many countries.

  • preventive medicine
  • mental health
  • public health
  • yoga

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  • Contributors KP, TC and HM conceived and designed the study. TC and KP managed recruitment and TC and AP conducted data analysis. TC and KP wrote the paper with contributions from all authors. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests HM creates treatment and training programmes for professionals to use yoga and mindfulness techniques with long-term health conditions. Individuals and organisations (including health services) pay for attendance of trainings and courses.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The study was approved by the University of Westminster Ethics Committee (1516-0614). Participants gave informed consent before taking part in the study.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement No data are available.