Table 1

Patient characteristics by smoking status: mean (SD) unless otherwise stated

 MenWomen
NeverDailyFormerNeverDailyFormer
Number of individuals2825111624663641434658
Age (years)66.4 (6.1)62.3 (5.9)66.9 (6.5)65.7 (6.2)62.9 (5.8)67.1 (6.7)
Body mass index (kg/m2)27.3 (4.6)27.7 (4.9)28.9 (4.6)28.2 (5.5)29.8 (5.8)31.3 (5.9)
Current weekly alcohol use (%)32.346.455.49.020.027.1
History of macrovascular disease (%)34.330.743.025.217.733.4
History of microvascular disease (%)11.18.710.611.07.87.6
History of stroke (%)11.18.08.89.24.67.4
Age at completion of highest level of education (years)20.0 (7.3)19.3 (6.9)18.7 (7.4)17.1 (7.1)17.6 (6.6)17.3 (7.1)
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)144.1 (20.8)141.0 (20.8)147.3 (21.0)145.3 (2.2)142.5 (20.9)147.5 (22.9)
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)81.0 (11.0)81.1 (10.9)81.7 (10.7)75.7 (11.5)79.7 (11.0)80.0 (11.3)
Heart rate (bpm)74 (12)75 (12)72 (13)76 (12)75 (11)74 (11)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.92 (1.14)5.10 (1.10)4.87 (1.05)5.60 (1.22)5.51 (1.23)5.35 (1.17)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.21 (0.34)1.18 (0.30)1.17 (0.31)1.35 (0.37)1.30 (0.37)1.32 (0.36)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.96 (0.96)3.07 (1.02)2.87 (0.98)3.38 (1.05)3.31 (1.09)3.13 (1.03)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.77 (1.21)2.06 (1.30)1.94 (1.29)2.04 (1.33)2.11 (1.30)2.04 (1.23)
HbA1c (%)7.45 (1.52)7.67 (1.59)7.35 (1.38)7.65 (1.70)7.45 (1.49)7.40 (1.38)
Exercise times per week, (minimum 15 min/time)9.0 (10.8)9.3 (12.2)8.6 (9.9)9.0 (11.5)7.8 (7.7)7.5 (8.1)
Creatinine clearance (mL/min)81.9 (27.0)93.5 (30.3)85.9 (28.2)76.7 (28.3)83.7 (27.2)81.1 (28.3)
ACE/ARB medication (%)46.743.754.243.650.255.2
β-blocker (%)24.620.228.022.326.529.6
Any blood pressure medications (%)74.867.375.377.072.480.2
Lipid-lowering medication (%)32.036.045.527.441.749.5
Aspirin or thienopyridines (%)48.847.954.739.740.149.8
Duration of diabetes (years)8.6 (6.7)6.4 (5.6)7.9 (6.4)8.2 (6.2)6.4 (5.8)7.2 (6.2)
  • ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.