Table 1

Key terms and definitions

TermDefinition
Replication research
 Retest replicationRepeating exactly the methodology from an original study*in another group of study participants in order to validate the original findings34
 Approximate
replication
Repeating an original study*with only minor changes to the population, setting, treatment, outcomes and/or analyses34
 Similar resultsTreatment effect from the replication study is in the same direction as the original study
 Contradictory resultsTreatment effect from the replication study changes direction relative to the original study
 Practice reversalReplication study demonstrates that a practice previously shown to be beneficial or with uncertain impact is ineffective or harmful18
 ReplacementReplication study demonstrates that a practice previously felt to be harmful or ineffective is beneficial46
 No change in
practice
Replication study demonstrates that a practice previously shown to be harmful is neither beneficial nor harmful (ie, ineffective)
 De-adoptionThe discontinuance of a clinical practice, where discontinuance is the decision to reject a practice after it was previously adopted35
  • *For randomised clinical trials: pilot trials do not count as original studies; sample size of the replication study must be within 10% of that of the original study. For systematic reviews/meta-analyses: replication study must include citations from primary research not included in the original study.