Table 1

Items assessing (changes in) the perceived physical and social environment and rotated factor loadings

DescriptionItemFactor 1
Change in infrastructure
Factor 2
Change in safety
Perceived physical environment
 Safety for walkingWalking is unsafe because of the traffic0.2760.809
 Safety for cyclingCycling is unsafe because of the traffic0.2430.804
 Pavements for walkingThere are pavements suitable for walking0.7320.221
 Special lanes for cyclingThere are special lanes, routes or paths for cycling0.6880.280
 PleasantThe routes are pleasant for walking or cycling0.7060.203
 Low crimeThe level of crime or antisocial behaviour means walking or cycling is unsafe−0.1280.678
 LightingThe routes for walking and cycling are generally well lit at night0.6950.032
Perceived social environment
 Visibility of cycling for transportI see people in my neighbourhood cycling for travelNANA
 Visibility of walking for transportI see people in my neighbourhood walking for travelNANA
 Visibility of cycling for recreationI see people in my neighbourhood cycling for recreationNANA
 Visibility of walking for recreationI see people in my neighbourhood walking for recreationNANA
  • NA: not applicable as this variable was not used in factor analysis. Factor analysis was based on 1211 participants for whom change scores for all relevant items were available.