Table 2

Association between individual health literacy measures and derived health literacy estimates

Pearson and Spearman correlation tests
Literacy measuresDerived health literacy estimatesREALMTOFHLANVS
REALM0.38*†1.0
TOFHLA0.42*†0.72*†1.0
NVS0.50*‡0.60*‡0.64*‡1.0
κ Agreement test
Individual literacy measures versus derived health literacy estimatesκ ScoreAgreement (%)p Value
REALM0.3875.5<0.0001
TOFHLA0.3774.2<0.0001
NVS0.4069.8<0.0001
  • *p<0.001.

  • †Pearson correlation statistic.

  • ‡Spearman correlation statistic.

  • NVS, Newest Vital Sign; REALM, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine; TOFHLA, Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults.