Table 3

Baseline characteristics of daily smokers, according to the smoking intensity

Smoking intensity
Light smokers (n=135)Moderate smokers (n=106)Heavy smokers (n=13)p Value
Body weight, kg(b,c)71.3±13.670.8±12.881.3±18.00.009
BMI, kg/m2(b,c)24.2±3.524.1±3.527.5±3.40.023
WC, cm86.0±11.486.9±10.294.3±11.70.059
HC, cm96.5±8.697.7±8.0102.6±8.50.163
WHR0.890±0.080.890±0.070.920±0.070.280
WHtR0.502±0.060.508±0.060.545±0.050.266
FG, mmol(b,c)4.3±0.64.4±0.85.3±2.60.010
TC, mmol5.4±1.15.4±1.05.6±0.70.399
HDL-C, mmol1.6±0.41.5±0.41.1±0.30.057
LDL-C, mmol3.3±1.13.3±0.93.6±0.60.515
TC to HDL-C ratio(b,c)3.6±1.23.9±1.25.5±1.80.033
TAG, mmol(b,c)1.1±0.61.3±0.72.5±1.90.006
Total WCC, G/L(a)7.0±1.88.0±2.38.0±2.20.035
  • Values are shown as mean±SD.

  • p Value determined by multivariate ANOVA and adjusted for age, physical activity and energy intake; LSD was the post hoc procedure; (a) statistically significant differences between light and moderate smokers; (b) statistically significant differences between light and heavy smokers; (c) statistically significant differences between moderate and heavy smokers. Light smokers: 1–10 cigarettes per day; moderate smokers: 11–20 cigarettes per day; heavy smokers: >20 cigarettes per day.

  • BMI, body mass index; FG, fasting glucose; HC, hip circumference; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TAG, triacylglycerols; TC, total cholesterol; WC, waist circumference; WCC, white cell count; WHR, waist-to-hip ratio; WHtR, waist-to-height ratio.