Table 1

Characteristics of study participants by educational level

CharacteristicsTotal sample
n=4165
Educational level
Low
n = 1694 (40.7%)
Medium
n = 2076 (49.8%)
High
n=395 (9.5%)
ORs, 95% CI, p value*
Low vs mediumLow vs highMedium vs high
Age in years, mean (SD)50.19 (17.59)60.21 (15.84)42.68 (14.98)46.69 (16.36)†1.05 (1.04 to 1.06)
0.000
1.07 (1.06 to 1.08)
0.000
0.98 (0.97 to 0.99)
0.000
Sex, n (%)
 Men‡1917 (46.0)558 (32.9)1134 (54.6)225 (57.0)†111
 Women§2248 (54.0)1136 (67.1)942 (45.4)170 (43.0)2.69 (2.16 to 3.69)
0.000
1.45 (1.14 to 2.80)
0.000
1.10 (0.85 to 1.37)
0.392
Settlement, n (%)416516942076395
 Urban1725 (41.4)404 (23.8)1044 (50.3)277 (70.1)†111
 Rural2440 (58.6)1290 (76.2)1032 (49.7)118 (29.9)7.49 (5.88 to 9.56)
0.000
3.23 (2.80 to 4.19)
0.000
2.32 (1.84 to 2.93)
0.000
Marital status, n (%)415416912073390
 Married or living with partner2738 (65.9)1054 (62.3)1432 (69.1)252 (64.6)†111
 Without partner¶1416 (34.1)637 (37.7)641 (30.9)138 (35.4)1.10 (0.88 to 1.39)
0.400
1.35 (1.18 to 1.55)
0.000
0.82 (0.65 to 1.03)
0.082
Employment status, n (%)416216922076394
 Employed1234 (29.6)148 (8.7)868 (41.8)218 (55.3)†111
 Inactive1935 (46.5)1198 (70.8)620 (29.9)117 (29.7)15.08 (11.37 to 19.99)
0.000
11.33 (9.28 to 13.83)
0.000
1.33 (1.04 to 1.70)
0.000
 Unemployed993 (23.9)346 (20.4)588 (28.3)59 (15.0)8.63 (6.11 to 12.21)
0.000
3.45 (2.77 to 4.29)
0.000
2.50 (1.84 to 3.39)
0.023
BMI, kg/m2, n
mean (SD)
4046
26.60 (5.00)
1660
26.70 (5.37)
2002
26.50 (4.57)
384
26.70 (5.16)†
1.01 (0.99 to 1.03)
0.225
0.99 (0.97 to 1.02)
0.620
0.99 (0.97 to 1.02)
0.611
SBP, mm Hg, n
mean (SD)
4165
134.80 (21.3)
1694
137.90 (22.6)
2076
134.40 (18.74)
395
132.00 (18.19)†
1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)
0.000
1.02 (1.01 to 1.02)
0.000
1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)
0.009
DBP, mm Hg, n
mean (SD)
4165
83.70 (11.41)
1694
84.80 (11.76)
2076
83.82 (10.78)
395
82.58 (10.82)†
1.01 (1.00 to 1.01)
0.048
1.02 (1.01 to 1.03)
0.000
1.01 (1.00 to 1.02)
0.013
TC, mg/dL, n
mean (SD)
4059
5.12 (1.40)
1674
5.11 (1.38)
2003
5.12 (1.40)
382
5.10 (1.33)†
1.00 (0.95 to 1.06)
0.891
1.04 (0.95 to 1.14)
0.393
1.02 (0.94 to 1.11)
0.566
FBG, mg/dL, n
mean (SD)
4058
4.95 (1.68)
1674
5.04 (1.98)
2002
4.95 (1.42)
382
4.76 (1.40)†§
1.03 (0.98 to 1.08)
0.276
1.10 (1.01 to 1.20)
0.026
1.07 (0.98 to 1.16)
0.124
  • *According to logistic regression analysis. Comparisons of low (1) versus medium education group (0), low (1) versus high education group (0) and medium (1) versus high education group (0) for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and FBG were adjusted for age and sex. Comparisons of medium (1) versus high education group (0) for BMI, SBP, DBP, TC and FBG were adjusted for age.

  • †p=0.000 according to χ2 test, ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test.

  • ‡Mean±SD; median; minimum age; maximum age: in low (58.3±16.8; 61; 18; 91), medium (44.4±15.5; 45; 18; 87) and high (51.6±15.8; 53; 21; 82) educational groups.

  • §Mean±SD; median; minimum age; maximum age: in low (61.6±15.2; 63; 18; 95), medium (40.6±14.0; 41; 18; 87) and high (40.2±14.8; 36; 21; 78) educational groups.

  • ¶Unmarried, divorced or widowed.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; BMI, body mass index; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; FBG, fasting blood glucose; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TC, total cholesterol.