Table 2

Associations between measures of alcohol consumption and balance outcomes

Alcohol exposureDynamic balanceStatic balance eyes openStatic balance eyes closed
NCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)NCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)NCrude OR (95% CI)Adjusted OR* (95% CI)
Maternal pre-pregnancy464646744621
 Never2371 (ref)1 (ref)2381 (ref)1 (ref)2361 (ref)1 (ref)
 <1 glass/week16921.08 (0.85 to 1.39)1.10 (0.86 to 1.41)17111.03 (0.78 to 1.35)1.01 (0.76 to 1.33)16861.04 (0.82 to 1.32)0.99 (0.78 to 1.27)
 ≥1 glass/week21651.19 (0.93 to 1.51)1.22 (0.95 to 1.56)21701.10 (0.84 to 1.44)1.04 (0.79 to 1.37)21541.22 (0.96 to 1.54)1.13 (0.89 to 1.44)
 ≥1 glass/day5521.07 (0.82 to 1.42)1.13 (0.85 to 1.50)5551.17 (0.86 to 1.59)1.08 (0.79 to 1.49)5451.36 (1.04 to 1.78)1.23 (0.93 to 1.63)
 p Value0.3020.1640.1190.453<0.0010.009
Maternal at 18 weeks477848064751
 None33611 (ref)1 (ref)33791 (ref)1 (ref)33391 (ref)1 (ref)
 Low7141.04 (0.90 to 1.20)1.04 (0.90 to 1.20)7190.95 (0.81 to 1.12)0.94 (0.79 to 1.10)7161.13 (0.98 to 1.31)1.10 (0.95 to 1.27)
 Moderate5050.98 (0.83 to 1.15)0.98 (0.83 to 1.15)5071.23 (1.01 to 1.47)1.23 (1.01 to 1.49)5011.25 (1.06 to 1.48)1.25 (1.06 to 1.48)
 High1981.04 (0.81 to 1.35)1.07 (0.82 to 1.39)2011.05 (0.79 to 1.40)1.06 (0.79 to 1.43)1951.07 (0.83 to 1.39)1.14 (0.88 to 1.48)
 p Value0.8780.7970.1650.1710.0140.009
Maternal binge drinking477648034748
 None41061 (ref)1 (ref)41281 (ref)1 (ref)40841 (ref)1 (ref)
 1–4 days5251.12 (0.96 to 1.32)1.15 (0.97 to 1.35)52990.97 (0.81 to 1.17)1.02 (0.84 to 1.22)5180.95 (0.81 to 1.12)1.04 (0.88 to 1.22)
 5–10 days750.72 (0.49 to 1.06)0.77 (0.52 to 1.15)751.46 (0.91 to 2.37)1.58 (0.97 to 2.58)751.06 (0.70 to 1.60)1.19 (0.78 to 1.81)
 >10 days701.30 (0.82 to 2.05)1.27 (0.80 to 2.00)711.06 (0.66 to 1.71)1.07 (0.66 to 1.73)711.53 (1.00 to 2.35)1.67 (1.09 to 2.58)
 p Value0.4710.3480.4930.2880.2970.035
Maternal postnatal436943944340
 None11871 (ref)1 (ref)11921 (ref)1 (ref)11781 (ref)1 (ref)
 Low7410.93 (0.79 to 1.10)0.93 (0.78 to 1.10)7461.12 (0.93 to 1.34)1.10 (0.92 to 1.33)7351.08 (0.92 to 1.27)1.03 (0.97 to 1.23)
 Moderate14261.07 (0.93 to 1.23)1.07 (0.93 to 1.24)14331.07 (0.92 to 1.26)1.04 (0.89 to 1.22)14171.18 (1.03 to 1.36)1.09 (0.95 to 1.26)
 High10151.07 (0.92 to 1.24)1.07 (0.92 to 1.26)10231.12 (0.94 to 1.32)1.07 (0.90 to 1.27)10101.31 (1.12 to 1.52)1.19 (1.02 to 1.39)
 p Value0.1820.1780.2520.576<0.0010.028
Paternal first 3 months384138653827
 Never1191 (ref)1 (ref)1211 (ref)1 (ref)1191 (ref)1 (ref)
 <1 glass/week8120.86 (0.60 to 1.21)0.84 (0.59 to 1.20)8161.67 (1.13 to 2.45)1.62 (1.10 to 2.39)8091.22 (0.86 to 1.72)1.12 (0.78 to 1.60)
 ≥1 glass/week20860.93 (0.67 to 1.31)0.93 (0.66 to 1.31)20971.65 (1.14 to 2.38)1.54 (1.06 to 2.25)20701.45 (1.04 to 2.02)1.29 (0.92 to 1.82)
 ≥1 glass/day8240.97 (0.69 to 1.38)0.97 (0.68 to 1.38)8311.79 (1.22 to 2.63)1.65 (1.11 to 2.44)8291.58 (1.11 to 2.23)1.36 (0.95 to 1.94)
 p Value0.2860.2860.0490.206<0.0010.013
Paternal binge drinking395839833942
 None6311 (ref)1 (ref)6371 (ref)1 (ref)6291 (ref)1 (ref)
 1–4 days14741.10 (0.93 to 1.30)1.11 (0.94 to 1.31)14811.15 (0.95 to 1.39)1.15 (0.95 to 1.39)14601.16 (0.98 to 1.38)1.16 (0.98 to 1.37)
 5–10 days10831.11 (0.93 to 1.32)1.13 (0.94 to 1.34)10891.11 (0.92 to 1.36)1.09 (0.89 to 1.33)10821.16 (0.98 to 1.39)1.13 (0.95 to 1.36)
 >10 days7701.10 (0.91 to 1.33)1.13 (0.93 to 1.36)7761.12 (0.91 to 1.39)1.10 (0.89 to 1.36)7711.21 (1.00 to 1.47)1.20 (0.99 to 1.46)
 p Value0.3940.2680.4640.6760.0860.132
  • OR for ‘good balance’ by categories of alcohol exposure.

  • *Adjusted for confounders: marital status, crowding index, home ownership, parity, maternal education, ethnicity, maternal age, maternal social class, smoking, cannabis use, caffeine consumption, number of maternal life events during pregnancy and maternal depression. Contemporaneous measures of maternal caffeine, cannabis and smoking exposure were used as far as possible for prenatal alcohol exposure; for postnatal alcohol exposure, maternal caffeine, cannabis and smoking exposure at 18 weeks gestation was used.