Table A1

Transcribing conventions, adapted from Atkinson and Heritage41

[onset of overlapping speech.hhh inbreath
] end of spate of overlapping talkHhh outbreath
[[ speakers start a turn simultaneously= no pause between speakers; contiguous
utterances
: preceding sound is lengthened or drawn out(( )) a non verbal activity (eg, C =
keystroke in this work)
(more : means greater prolongation)
Underlining emphasis( text ) unclear fragment of text
(.) pause of less than 0.2 seconds. falling tone (not necessarily end of
sentence)
(0.4) pause, in tenths of a second? rising inflection (not necessarily a question)
↑↓marked rising / falling intonationCAPITALS louder than surrounding talk
>text< the talk they surround is quicker than
surrounding talk
<text> the talk they surround is slower than
surrounding talk
°° the talk they surround is quieter than
surrounding talk