Table 4

Rates per 100 women for obstetric intervention among primiparas at low risk for 1996/1997 and 2000/2008—age standardised

Labour management before birthManagement at birth1996/1997 Private2000–2008 Private1996/1997 Public2000–2008 Public
No epidural, no inductionNo episiotomy
 Vaginal birth55.555.271.475.6
 Forceps or vacuum3.97.23.14.9
Episiotomy
 Vaginal birth21.320.714.69.4
 Forceps or vacuum15.911.17.95.5
Caesarean section after labour3.45.73.14.7
Subgroup rate32.525.35445.9
No epidural, inductionNo episiotomy
 Vaginal birth45.741.656.459
 Forceps or vacuum69.84.37.7
Episiotomy
 Vaginal birth22.319.316.811.1
 Forceps or vacuum16.718.414.38.7
Caesarean section after labour9.3118.213.5
Subgroup rate17.817.49.119.7
Epidural, no inductionNo episiotomy
 Vaginal birth27.826.137.841.9
 Forceps or vacuum15.717.38.313.3
Episiotomy
 Vaginal birth7.210.19.55.5
 Forceps or vacuum33.822.827.416.3
Caesarean section after labour15.623.81723
Subgroup rate15.216.51910.5
Epidural, inductionNo episiotomy
 Vaginal birth24.522.734.134.8
 Forceps or vacuum14.715.19.513.7
Episiotomy
 Vaginal birth99.46.75.7
 Forceps or vacuum32.321.524.415
Caesarean section after labour19.531.225.330.9
Subgroup rate3131.916.320.9
Rate for caesarean section before labour3.48.91.63