Table 2

Adjusted HRs with 95% CIs for any CVD, fatal CVD, any acidosis/serious infection, fatal acidosis/serious infection and all-cause mortality in all patients, in each treatment group, and with metformin only as reference

Metformin onlyInsulin onlyOther OHA onlyInsulin + other OHAMetformin + other OHAMetformin + insulinMetformin + insulin + other OHA
Any CVDReference1.28 (1.19 to 1.37)***1.13 (1.04 to 1.23)**1.40 (1.24 to 1.58)***1.11 (1.03 to 1.20)**1.28 (1.19 to 1.38)***1.33 (1.19 to 1.49)***
Fatal CVDReference1.41 (1.18 to 1.68)***1.30 (1.08 to 1.56)**1.17 (0.91 to 1.51)1.21 (0.92 to 1.58)
Any acidosis/serious infectionReference1.37 (1.26 to 1.50)***1.16 (1.04 to 1.28)**1.31 (1.13 to 1.51)***1.04 (0.95 to 1.14)1.20 (1.09 to 1.32)***1.15 (1.00 to 1.32)*
Fatal acidosis/serious infectionReference1.63 (1.29 to 2.07)***1.28 (0.98 to 1.67)1.32 (0.91 to 1.89)0.94 (0.72 to 1.23)1.41 (1.08 to 1.83)*1.12 (0.73 to 1.67)
All-cause mortalityReference1.47 (1.35 to 1.61)***1.30 (1.18 to 1.44)***1.30 (1.12 to 1.50)***1.15 (1.05 to 1.27)**1.25 (1.13 to 1.38)***1.31 (1.14 to 1.52)***
  • Adjustments were made for age, sex, diabetes duration, HbA1c, non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, body mass index, smoking, estimated glomerular filtration rate, multidose dispensation, previous hospitalisation, history of CVD and congestive heart failure, microalbuminuria, and treatment with antihypertensive agents, lipid-lowering agents and cardiac glycosides.

  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Non-proportional hazards, group excluded from analysis.

  • CVD, cardiovascular disease; OHA, oral hypoglycaemic agent.