Table 2

Baseline characteristics of participants in the treatment group retrospectively classed as adherent and non-adherent

Adherent n=173 (47.0%)Non-adherent n=195 (53.0%)P values*
Children
 Age (months) year 159.4 (4.5)59.6 (4.5)0.850
 Gender
  Male81 (46.8)102 (52.3)
  Female92 (53.2)93 (47.7)0.293
 Ethnicity
  White48 (27.9)43 (22.2)
  Pakistani103 (59.9)129 (66.5)
  Other21 (12.2)22 (11.3)0.387
 Route of birth
  Vaginal137 (79.6)154 (79.8)
  Caesarean35 (20.4)39 (20.2)0.973
 Gestational age at birth (weeks)276 (13.0)275 (14.0)0.383
 Birth weight (g)3121 (569.0)3134 (579.0)0.833
 VA better eye†0.292 (0.150)0.256 (0.129)0.008
 VA worse eye†0.465 (0.197)0.399 (0.175)0.001
 SER better eye1.18 (0.86)1.20 (1.02)0.960
 SER worse eye2.02 (1.20)1.96 (1.33)0.657
 Language ability scores‡97.8 (15.6)96.8 (16.4)0.553
Mother
 Age (years)28.1 (5.8)28.0 (5.7)0.845
 Mother’s education
  <A -level78  (60.9)112  (76.7)
  A-level or above50 (39.1)34 (23.3)0.005
 In receipt of means-tested benefits (yes)61 (45.5)83 (55.7)0.087
  • Values are numbers (%) or mean (SD).

  • VAs are measured in logMAR; therefore, higher values represent poorer VA.

  • *Difference between adherent and non-adherent treatment groups (χ2 or t-test as appropriate).

  • †No child was wearing spectacles at the baseline assessment.

  • ‡Age-adjusted language ability measure for British Picture Vocabulary Scale.

  • logMAR, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution; SER, spherical equivalent refraction; VA, visual acuity.