Table 2

Characteristics of the studies included

First author, yearCountrySubjectsSubjects (n)Male (n)Age, years
Mean±SD
Severity of CA stenosisVascular imageWMHs rating methodWMHs locationResult
StenosedControl
Ammirati,4 2017ItalyAsymptomatic27403869±8Stenosis ≥50%DUSVolumetricTotalPositive
Sahin,5 2015TurkeyAsymptomatic2929*1868.62±9.22Unilateral stenosis ≥70%CTA, MRA, DSAScheltens ScaleDeep
Periventricular
Positive
Schulz,9 2013UKSymptomatic†3333*NANAUnilateral stenosis ≥70%CTA, MRA, DUSARWMC ScaleTotalNegative
Cheng,10 2012TaiwanAsymptomatic172624NAUnilateral stenosis ≥70%DUS, MRAScheltens ScaleTotalNegative
Scherr,11 2012AustriaAsymptomatic6215011970.2±9.06Stenosis ≥50%DUSModified Fazekas ScaleTotalNegative
Chuang,6 2011TaiwanSymptomatic‡106106*6468.7±9.2Unilateral stenosis >60%DUS, MRAFazekas ScaleDeep
Periventricular
Positive
Enzinger,7 2010AustriaAsymptomatic
Symptomatic§
9797*6869.1±10.2Unilateral stenosis >70%DUS, MRAVolumetricTotalPositive
Patankar,8 2006UKAsymptomatic5535NANAStenosis >70%DUSScheltens ScaleDeep
Periventricular
Positive
  • *Intraindividual side-to-side comparison.

  • †Transient ischaemic attack and minor stroke.

  • ‡Transient (lasting <24 hours) or minor neurological deficits in the territory of the stenosed CA.

  • §Subjects with a supratentorial infarct exceeding 1.5 cm in diameter were excluded.

  • ARWMC, age-related white matter changes;CA, carotid artery; CTA, CT angiography; DSA, digital subtraction angiography; DUS, Doppler ultrasonography; MRA, magnetic resonance angiography; NA, not applicable; WMHs, white matter hyperintensities.