Table 1

Distribution of baseline characteristics according to eating speed

Eating speedP value
Fast (n=22 070)Normal (n=33 455)Slow (n=4192)
Women6023 (27.3%)12 213 (36.5%)1861 (44.4%)<0.001*
Age46.6 (10.4)48.1 (10.6)46.5 (11.7)<0.001†
Use of antidiabetic medications13 648 (61.8%)20 074 (60.0%)2525 (60.2%)<0.001*
BMI, kg/m2 25.0 (4.4)23.4 (3.9)22.3 (4.0)<0.001†
Obese (BMI ≥25)9884 (44.8%)9886 (29.6%)901 (21.5%)<0.001*
Waist circumference (cm)86.8 (11.1)82.8 (10.4)80.1 (10.6)<0.001†
Eating dinner within 2 hours before sleeping ≥3 times per week9546 (43.3%)11 161 (33.4%)1541 (36.8%)<0.001*
Snacking after dinner ≥3 times per week4247 (19.2%)4851 (14.5%)809 (19.3%)<0.001*
Skipping breakfast ≥3 times per week4599 (20.8%)5542 (16.6%)794 (18.9%)<0.001*
Alcohol consumption
 Every day5695 (25.8%)8810 (26.3%)955 (22.8%)<0.001*
 Occasionally7233 (32.8%)10 398 (31.1%)1152 (27.5%)<0.001*
 Rarely or never9142 (41.4%)14 247 (42.6%)2085 (49.7%)<0.001*
 Inadequate sleep11 236 (50.9%)15 018 (44.9%)1954 (46.6%)<0.001*
 Habitual smoker7140 (32.4%)10 240 (30.6%)1146 (27.3%)<0.001*
  • Values for number of check-ups, age and BMI are presented as mean (SD). All other values are presented as number of subjects (proportion of each eating-speed group).

  • 2 test.

  • †One-way analysis of variance.

  • BMI, body mass index.