Table 5

Estimated coefficients of the determinants of changes in waist circumference derived from the fixed-effects model

Coefficient95% CIP value
Eating speed
 Fast Reference
 Normal−0.21−0.30 to 0.12 <0.001
 Slow−0.41−0.59 to 0.22 <0.001
Eating dinner within 2 hours before sleeping ≥3 times per week
 Yes Reference
 No−0.12−0.20 to 0.04 0.003
Snacking after dinner ≥3 times per week
 Yes Reference
 No−0.2−0.29 to 0.11 <0.001
Skipping breakfast ≥3 times per week
 Yes Reference
 No0.03−0.11 to 0.16 0.674
Alcohol consumption
 Every day Reference
 Occasionally−0.34−0.47 to 0.20 <0.001
 Rarely or never−0.47−0.65 to 0.29 <0.001
Inadequate sleep
 Yes Reference
 No0.070.00 to 0.14 0.053
Habitual smoker
 Yes Reference
 No0.80.66 to 0.95 <0.001
Use of antidiabetic medication
 No Reference
 Yes−0.32−0.41 to 0.23 <0.001
 Age0.270.24 to 0.30 <0.001
 Waist circumference in the previous check-up−0.11−0.12 to 0.10 <0.001