Table 1

Participant characteristics according to sex: the Nagasaki Islands Study 2015–2016

Sex categoryWomenMenP for differenceAverage maximum tongue pressure, kPa*
N1153815WomenMen
Demographics
 Age, years*70.4±9.370.1±10.30.44
Lifestyle factors
 Physical activity, n (%)
  Inactive162 (14.1)146 (17.9)0.0230.0±9.032.2±11.0
  Active991 (85.9)669 (82.1)29.8±9.732.5±10.3
 Cigarette smoking status, n (%)
  Never1084 (94.0)220 (27.0)<0.000129.7±9.729.9±10.4
  Former44 (3.8)428 (20.5)32.1±10.232.7±10.5
  Current25 (2.2)167 (52.5)32.0±7.135.1±9.7
 Alcohol drinking status, n (%)
  Never910 (78.9)230 (28.2)<0.000129.3±9.931.0±10.1
  Former29 (2.5)93 (11.4)30.5±9.728.1±11.0
  Current214 (18.6)492 (60.4)32.0±8.133.9±10.2
Physiological characteristics
 Maximum tongue pressure
  Average, kPa*29.8±9.632.4±10.4<0.0001
  <20.0 kPa, n (%)171 (14.8)93 (11.4)<0.000113.8±4.513.7±5.0
  20 to 29.9 kPa, n (%)384 (33.3)227 (27.9)25.5±2.925.8±2.7
  30 to 39.9 kPa, n (%)452 (39.2)300 (36.8)34.8±2.834.8±2.7
  ≧40.0 kPa, n (%)146 (12.7)195 (23.9)44.6±4.045.5±5.0
 Body mass index, kg/m2*23.2±3.523.8±3.0<0.0001
 Hypertension medication, n (%)
  Yes540 (46.8)393 (48.2)0.5429.2±10.231.9±10.8
  No613 (53.2)422 (51.8)30.4±9.132.9±10.1
 Prevalent diabetes, n (%)†
  Yes121 (10.5)117 (14.4)0.0130.7±9.731.7±10.6
  No1032 (89.5)698 (85.6)29.7±9.632.5±10.4
 History of stroke, n (%)
  Yes30 (2.6)39 (4.8)0.0129.4±7.729.7±10.5
  No1123 (97.4)776 (95.2)29.8±9.732.6±10.4
 History of respiratory disease, n (%)
  Yes30 (2.6)25 (3.1)0.5430.0±9.930.2±9.0
  No1123 (97.4)790 (96.9)29.8±9.632.5±10.5
Psychological characteristics
  Psychological distress (K6 score)*1.4±2.71.1±2.50.01
Social environments
 Number of family members in the household*2.0±1.02.2±0.80.001
 Marital status, n (%)
  Having a partner726 (63.0)629 (77.2)<0.000130.3±9.532.5±10.2
  No partner427 (37.0)186 (22.8)29.0±9.832.1±11.1
 Participation in leisure activities, n (%)
  Yes945 (82.0)661 (81.2)0.6730.1±9.732.8±10.4
  No208 (18.0)153 (18.8)28.6±9.330.7±10.6
 Having a social network with neighbours, n (%)
  Yes1001 (86.8)660 (81.0)0.000430.2±9.433.0±10.3
  No152 (13.2)155 (19.0)27.5±10.630.0±10.8
 Having a social network beyond neighbours, n (%)
  Yes1062 (92.1)724 (88.8)0.0130.0±9.632.7±10.4
  No91 (7.9)91 (11.2)28.2±9.930.4±10.3
  • *Represented as mean±SD.

  • †Diabetes was defined as haemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, or medication use for diabetes.