Table 2

Association of social environments with maximum tongue pressure: the Nagasaki Islands Study 2015–2016

Social environmentsModel 1*R2 Model 2†R2 Model 3‡R2 Model 4‡R2
βB95 % CIP valueβB95 % CIP valueβB95 % CIP valueβB95 % CIP value
Total
Number of family members in the household−0.04−0.45(−0.97 to 0.07)0.090.12−0.04−0.44(−0.95 to 0.07)0.090.15−0.03−0.32(−0.78 to 0.15)0.180.150.15
Marital status0.020.49(−0.52 to 1.50)0.340.030.59(−0.42 to 1.59)0.250.010.30(−0.62 to 1.21)0.53
Participation in leisure activities 0.07 1.90 (0.78 to 3.01) 0.001 0.06 1.58 (0.48 to 2.68) 0.005 0.06 1.60 (0.51 to 2.70) 0.004 0.06 1.61 (0.52 to 2.71) 0.004
Social network with neighbours 0.09 2.60 (1.35 to 3.85) <0.0001 0.09 2.43 (1.19 to 3.67) 0.0001 0.09 2.41 (1.18 to 3.65) 0.0001 0.09 2.37 (1.14 to 3.60) 0.0002
Social network beyond neighbours0.020.55(−1.01 to 2.11)0.490.010.23(−1.30 to 1.77)0.770.010.32(−1.21 to 1.85)0.680.010.36(−1.17 to 1.88)0.64
Women
Number of family members in the household−0.01−0.13(−0.77 to 0.51)0.690.08−0.02−0.18(−0.82 to 0.46)0.580.11−0.02−0.23(−0.81 to 0.35)0.440.110.10
Marital status−0.02−0.34(−1.62 to 0.93)0.60−0.01−0.24(−1.51 to 1.04)0.72−0.02−0.30(−1.47 to 0.86)0.61
Participation in leisure activities 0.06 1.61 (0.18 to 3.03) 0.03 0.061.42(−0.01 to 2.84)0.050.061.41(−0.01 to 2.83)0.050.061.41(−0.02 to 2.83)0.05
Social network with neighbours 0.10 2.73 (1.07 to 4.39) 0.001 0.09 2.67 (1.00 to 4.33) 0.002 0.09 2.68 (1.01 to 4.34) 0.002 0.09 2.63 (0.97 to 4.29) 0.002
Social network beyond neighbours0.031.15(−0.93 to 3.23)0.280.031.17(−0.90 to 3.23)0.270.031.13(−0.92 to 3.19)0.280.031.23(−0.82 to 3.27)0.24
Men
Number of family members in the household −0.08 −1.03 (−1.92 to –0.14) 0.02 0.14−0.07−0.81(−1.68 to 0.07)0.070.18−0.03−0.37(−1.17 to 0.44)0.370.170.18
Marital status 0.11 2.65 (0.85 to 4.45) 0.004 0.09 2.26 (0.47 to 4.04) 0.01 0.061.61(−0.02 to 3.23)0.05
Participation in leisure activities 0.08 2.12 (0.35 to 3.90) 0.02 0.061.73(−0.02 to 3.48)0.05 0.07 1.90 (0.15 to 3.65) 0.03 0.07 1.89 (0.15 to 3.63) 0.03
Social network with neighbours 0.09 2.43 (0.51 to 4.34) 0.01 0.08 2.13 (0.25 to 4.02) 0.03 0.08 2.14 (0.25 to 4.03) 0.03 0.08 2.04 (0.15 to 3.92) 0.03
Social network beyond neighbours−0.01−0.26(−2.66 to 2.14)0.83−0.03−1.02(−3.39 to 1.35)0.40−0.02−0.74(−3.11 to 1.63)0.54−0.03−0.96(−3.32 to 1.40)0.43
  • The number of family members in the household, marital status, social networks with and beyond neighbours, and participation in leisure activities were included in models 1–4.

  • *Model 1: adjusted for age and sex.

  • †Model 2: adjusted for model 1 + lifestyle factors (physical activity, smoking status and drinking status) + physiological characteristics (body mass index) + psychological distress (K6 score) + major dysphagia risk factors (antihypertensive medicine use, diabetes, history of stroke and respiratory disease)

  • ‡Models 3 and 4: adjusted for the same variables in model 2 other than number of family members in the household and marital status, which were separately included in models 3 and 4 to avoid overadjustment.

  • Bolded variables are associated with maximum tongue pressure (p < 0.05).

  • B, parameter estimate; β, standardised parameter estimate; R2, adjusted R-squared