Table 2

Study summaries

High-quality studies
CitationCountryStudy designProjectile typeTotal people injuredPeople that diedPeople with permanent disabilityTotal no of injuries
Balouris et al35Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveRubber-coated metal bullet6904869
De Brito et al36USARetrospectiveBean bag round4013100
Dhar et al58IndiaProspectiveRubber bullets280528
Elder37Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveRubber, plastic bullet1101011
Hughes et al57Northern IrelandRetrospectiveVariation of plastic bullet280030
Lavy and Asleh38Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveRubber-coated metal bullet4202542
Maguire et al39Northern IrelandRetrospectiveAttenuated energy projectile140122
Mahajna et al40Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveRubber-coated metal bullet15236202
Schnitzer41Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveMetal/PVC composite61210619
Sutter42SwitzerlandCase seriesRubber bullets5035
Suyama et al43USARetrospectiveRubber and plastic bullets, bean bag rounds250038
Unuvar et al59TurkeyRetrospectivePlastic bullets310152
Wani et al44IndiaProspectiveRubber bullets, shotgun pellets352239
Moderate-quality studies
Hirshberg et al45Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveRubber-coated metal bullet619052
Hiss et al46Israel/PalestineCase seriesRubber-coated metal bullet1717n/an/a
Jaouni and O’Shea47Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveRubber-coated metal bullet1540154154
Khan et al48IndiaProspectiveRubber bullets5055
Mir et al49IndiaProspectiveUnknown6412163
Paret et al50Israel/PalestineRetrospectivePlastic bullets2910819
Ritchie51Northern IrelandretrospectivePVC bullet10102104
Schnitzer and Fitzgerald52Israel/PalestineCase seriesRubber-coated metal bullet150015
Steele et al63UK, Northern IrelandRetrospectivePVC bullet15502172
Yellin et al53Israel/PalestineRetrospectiveMetal/PVC composite262043
Low-quality studies
Hubbs54USARetrospectiveRubber (40%), plastic (35%) other (25%) bullets17730158
Ritchie and Gibbons55Northern IrelandRetrospectivePlastic bullets804085
Sharma et al56NepalRetrospectiveUnknown8048
  • n/a, not available; PVC, polyvinyl chloride.