Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

Inclusion criteriaExclusion criteria
  • Patients with ≥1 completely or partially hypertrophic capillary malformation not exclusively located in the skin of the face, the skin overlying joints or in mucosal tissue

  • Age ≥18 years

  • Fitzpatrick skin type 1–3 without evident sun tan

  • Patients with capillary malformations exclusively located in the face, in the skin overlying joints or in mucosa

  • Pregnant or breastfeeding women

  • Women with childbearing potential not using contraception

  • Patients with chronic renal dysfunction with a glomerular filtration rate of <50 mL/min

  • Patients with chronic pulmonary dysfunction, active pulmonary infections or previous bleomycin lung toxicity

  • Patients with ataxia telangiectasia

  • Patients with previous allergic reactions to bleomycin

  • Patients who already received the maximum dose of bleomycin (400 units or 400 000 IU/m2)

  • Patients with implanted electrical devices such as pacemakers or implantable cardioverter defibrillators

  • Patients with clinically manifested arrhythmia

  • Patients with epilepsy

  • Patients who are not able to return to the hospital for follow-up visits

  • Patients who are likely not able to understand the terms and risks of the study (eg, cognitive impairment)

  • Legally incompetent adults

  • Patients of which informed consent was not obtained