Table 3

Prevalence of physical and biochemical risk factors of non-communicable diseases by gender and household wealth status, % (95% CI)*

Household wealth statusMenWomenp for gender difference‡
Housing
level 1
Housing
level 2
All†Housing
level 1
Housing
level 2
All†
Overweight or obesity<0.001
 BMI ≥25 kg/m221.2
(18.3 to 24.2)
17.5
(14.5 to 20.4)
18.9
(16.8 to 21.1)
39.4
(36.0 to 42.7)
39.2
(35.4 to 42.9)
39.2
(36.6 to 41.9)
Obesity<0.001
 BMI ≥30 kg/m22.0
(1.0 to 3.0)
1.6
(0.6 to 2.6)
1.7
(1.0 to 2.5)
8.4
(6.5 to 10.3)
9.7
(7.4 to 12.0)
9.2
(7.7 to 10.8)
Large waist circumference
 Men >90 cm
 Women >80 cm
16.7
(14.0 to 19.4)
15.9
(13.0 to 18.7)
16.2
(14.2 to 18.2)
53.0
(49.6 to 56.4)
53.5
(49.7 to 57.3)
53.3
(50.6 to 56.0)
<0.001
 Men >94 cm
 Women >80 cm
9.1
(7.0 to 11.2)
9.3
(7.1 to 11.6)
9.2
(7.6 to 10.8)
53.0
(49.6 to 56.4)
53.5
(49.7 to 57.3)
53.3
(50.6 to 56.0)
<0.001
Large waist–hip ratio<0.001
 Men ≥0.9
 Women ≥0.85
62.1
(58.6 to 65.6)
65.9
(62.2 to 69.6)
64.4
(61.8 to 67.0)
80.7
(78.0 to 83.4)
79.7
(76.6 to 82.8)
80.1
(77.9 to 82.2)
Hypertension
 SBP ≥140 mmHg or
 DBP ≥90 mmHg
16.9
(14.2 to 19.6)
18.1
(15.1 to 21.1)
17.6
(15.5 to 19.7)
16.5
(13.9 to 19.0)
16.7
(13.8 to 19.6)
16.6
(14.6 to 18.6)
0.512
 SBP ≥140 mmHg or DBP ≥90 mmHg or on medication18.3
(15.5 to 21.0)
18.8
(15.8 to 21.9)
18.6
(16.5 to 20.8)
20.3
(17.5 to 23.0)
20.9
(17.8 to 24.0)
20.7
(18.5 to22.9)
0.195
Diabetes
 HbA1c ≥6.5% or  random blood glucose  ≥200 mg/dL or  diabetes treatment13.7
(11.2 to 16.2)
16.9
(13.9 to 19.8)
15.6
(13.6 to 17.6)
20.7
(17.9 to 23.5)
23.7
(20.4 to 26.9)
22.5
(20.3 to 24.8)
<0.001
Raised total cholesterol
 ≥190 mg/dL23.8
(20.7 to 26.9)
25.8
(22.4 to 29.2)
25.0
(22.6 to 27.4)
35.1
(31.9 to 38.4)
31.6
(28.1 to 35.2)
32.9
(30.4 to 35.5)
<0.001
 ≥190 mg/dL or on medication24.4
(21.3 to 27.5)
26.6
(23.1 to 30.0)
25.7
(23.3 to 28.1)
35.9
(32.6 to 39.2)
32.8
(29.2 to 36.4)
34.0
(31.4 to 36.5)
0.001
Low HDL cholesterol
 Men <40 mg/dL
 Women <40 mg/dL
73.8
(70.6 to 77.0)
72.8
(69.4 to 76.3)
73.2
(70.8 to 75.7)
57.1
(53.7 to 60.6)
54.9
(51.1 to 58.7)
55.7
(53.0 to 58.4)
<0.001
 Men <40 mg/dL
 Women <50 mg/dL 
73.8
(70.6 to 77.0)
72.8
(69.4 to 76.3)
73.2
(70.8 to 75.7)
84.1
(81.6 to 86.6)
82.3
(79.4 to 85.2)
83.0
(80.9 to 85.0)
<0.001
Raised LDL cholesterol
 ≥130 mg/dL11.7
(9.4 to 14.0)
11.7
(9.2 to 14.2)
11.7
(9.9 to 13.5)
14.1
(11.7 to 16.4)
11.7
(9.3 to 14.2)
12.6
(10.8 to 14.4)
0.484
Raised triglycerides
 ≥150 mg/dL50.4
(46.8 to 54.0)
47.0
(43.1 to 50.9)
48.4
(45.6 to 51.1)
37.8
(34.4 to 41.1)
39.4
(35.6 to 43.1)
38.8
(36.1 to 41.4)
<0.001
  • *Finite population correction was applied to the calculation of 95% CIs for each proportion.

  • †Weighted based on the sampling design.

  • ‡Gender differences between all men and all women were tested with a χ2 test.

  • BMI, body mass index; SBP, systolic blood pressure; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein.