Table 2

Characteristics of case management studies reporting positive findings, presented according to Chaudoir’s framework

Environment/organisationPractitionerPatientProgramme
Crane et al 32
  • Access to medical, social and community resources

  • Experienced, calm and trusted case manager

  • Multidisciplinary care plan

  • Life skills counselling.

  • Frequent and long visits

  • No limit on the number of encounters

Grover et al 38
  • Access to medical, social and community resources

  • Involvement of the diverse providers and services in a comprehensive approach to the patient

  • Multidisciplinary care plan

  • Review of the care plan

Shah et al 33
  • Access to medical, social and community resources

  • Connectivity to social resources

  • Close relationships between care managers, local hospitals and providers in clinics

  • Care plan by the case manager

  • Health navigation.

  • Frequent in-person contacts

  • Patients graduated from the programme when they understood how to make appointments, receive medication and follow-up on goals

Pillow et al 34
  • Partnerships within hospital and with local partners

  • Well-funded and well-supported programme

  • Practitioners felt buy-in for the process

  • Highly qualified interdisciplinary care team

  • Well-trained case manager

  • Implementation of a care plan for patients who needed it the most

  • Patient with full care plan in place

  • Multidisciplinary care plan

  • Review of the care plan

  • Easy access to key healthcare information

  • Care plan integrated into the ED tracking system (interface)

  • Practitioner can edit care plan and refer patient to get care plan

Rinke et al 35
  • Dedicated and experienced case manager

  • Care plan by the case manager

  • Review of the care plan

  • Health navigation

  • Care coordination

  • Confirmation of patient attendance at referrals

  • Frequent contacts

Tadros et al 36
  • Access to medical, social and community resources

  • Care coordination

Wetta-Hall37
  • Access to medical, social and community resources

  • Patient education

  • Funding support for prescription medication

  • Involvement of patient in goal setting and decision making

  • ED, emergency department.