Table 1

Sample descriptive characteristics (2008; n=51 states, including Washington, DC)

M (SD)
% Under 18 years24.1 (2.02)
% Age 65+ years13.0 (1.67)
% White80.3 (13.53)
% Hispanic10.1 (9.72)
% Individuals with a high school diploma86.6 (3.52)
% Children from single parent homes32.1 (5.95)
% Urban72.2 (15.28)
% Female50.7 (0.80)
% Individuals living below poverty12.8 (2.98)
Unemployment rate5.3 (1.27)
Log (GDP/capita)2.6 (0.18)
Medicaid per $100 00062.1 (80.99)
Total social service and public health spending per individual living in poverty ($1000)61.6 (20.74)
Homicide rate per 100 000 population, 20094.8 (3.59)
  • GDP, gross domestic product.